Chapter 26: Metamorphic Reactions

Chapter 26: Metamorphic Reactions PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 285 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Download Presentation

Chapter 26: Metamorphic Reactions

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


1. Chapter 26: Metamorphic Reactions If we treat isograds as reactions, we can: Understand what physical variables might affect the location of a particular isograd We may also be able to estimate the P-T-X conditions that an isograd represents Some workers have advocated that we distinguish field-based isograds in the classical sense from reaction-based isograds Reactions are always responsible for introducing or consuming mineral phases during metamorphism The classic notion of an isograd as the first appearance of a new mineral phase as one progresses up metamorphic grade is quite useful in the field, because a worker need only be able to recognize new minerals in a hand specimen If we understand the reactions that produce minerals, the physical conditions under which reactions occur, and what controls them, we can use this knowledge to better understand metamorphic processes If we have good experimental and theoretical data on minerals and reactions, we can locate a reaction in P-T-X space and constrain the conditions under which a particular metamorphic rock formed We will review the various types of metamorphic reactions, and discuss what controls them Reactions are always responsible for introducing or consuming mineral phases during metamorphism The classic notion of an isograd as the first appearance of a new mineral phase as one progresses up metamorphic grade is quite useful in the field, because a worker need only be able to recognize new minerals in a hand specimen If we understand the reactions that produce minerals, the physical conditions under which reactions occur, and what controls them, we can use this knowledge to better understand metamorphic processes If we have good experimental and theoretical data on minerals and reactions, we can locate a reaction in P-T-X space and constrain the conditions under which a particular metamorphic rock formed We will review the various types of metamorphic reactions, and discuss what controls them

2. 1. Phase Transformations Isochemical phase transformations (the polymorphs of SiO2 or Al2SiO5 or graphite-diamond or calcite-aragonite are in many ways the simplest to deal with The transformations depend on temperature and pressure only

3. 1. Phase Transformations For example, if CaCO3 is stable in a rock system, it should occur as calcite at temperatures and pressures below the equilibrium curve, and as aragonite at temperatures and pressures above the curve This explains why aragonite is the stable CaCO3 polymorph commonly found in blueschist facies terranes Providing that the boundary curves have been experimentally located accurately and that the mineralogy reflects equilibrium conditions, the presence of any polymorph may conveniently be used to set limits on the temperature and pressure conditions under which a rock formed For example, if CaCO3 is stable in a rock system, it should occur as calcite at temperatures and pressures below the equilibrium curve, and as aragonite at temperatures and pressures above the curve This explains why aragonite is the stable CaCO3 polymorph commonly found in blueschist facies terranes Providing that the boundary curves have been experimentally located accurately and that the mineralogy reflects equilibrium conditions, the presence of any polymorph may conveniently be used to set limits on the temperature and pressure conditions under which a rock formed

4. Independent of other minerals present, fluids, etc. Andalusite + Ms + Qtz + Bt +… will -> Sill at the transition grade regardless of other phases We used the presence of andalusite to indicate low-pressure metamorphic conditions, and by referring to Fig. 21-9 we can effectively limit the pressure of andalusite-bearing rocks to values below about 0.38 GPa The presence of two coexisting polymorphs in a single rock has often been taken to indicate that the metamorphic peak corresponded to equilibrium conditions along the univariant boundary curve separating the pair If an independent estimate of either pressure or temperature is available, the other parameter may then be estimated from the location of the equilibrium curve Thus if kyanite and sillimanite were to be observed together, for example, and the pressure were estimated via geobarometry to be 0.5 GPa, then the temperature of equilibration could be determined from Fig. 21-9 to be approximately 560oC If all three Al2SiO5 polymorphs were to be found in stable coexistence, the assemblage would indicate conditions at the invariant point (ca. 500oC and 3.8 GPa)Independent of other minerals present, fluids, etc. Andalusite + Ms + Qtz + Bt +… will -> Sill at the transition grade regardless of other phases We used the presence of andalusite to indicate low-pressure metamorphic conditions, and by referring to Fig. 21-9 we can effectively limit the pressure of andalusite-bearing rocks to values below about 0.38 GPa The presence of two coexisting polymorphs in a single rock has often been taken to indicate that the metamorphic peak corresponded to equilibrium conditions along the univariant boundary curve separating the pair If an independent estimate of either pressure or temperature is available, the other parameter may then be estimated from the location of the equilibrium curve Thus if kyanite and sillimanite were to be observed together, for example, and the pressure were estimated via geobarometry to be 0.5 GPa, then the temperature of equilibration could be determined from Fig. 21-9 to be approximately 560oC If all three Al2SiO5 polymorphs were to be found in stable coexistence, the assemblage would indicate conditions at the invariant point (ca. 500oC and 3.8 GPa)

5. 1. Phase Transformations Small DS for most polymorphic transformations ? small DG between two alternative polymorphs, even several tens of degrees from the equilibrium boundary ? little driving force for the reaction to proceed ® common metastable relics in the stability field of other Coexisting polymorphs may therefore represent non-equilibrium states (overstepped equilibrium curves or polymetamorphic overprints) Often by carefully observing the textures one can distinguish partial replacement and metastable coexistence from true stable equilibrium grain boundaries Hietanen (1956) reported all three Al2SiO5 polymorphs in northern Idaho, and proposed that metamorphic events in the area occurred near the invariant point More likely that kyanite is partially replaced by sillimanite during a prograde event near the kyanite-sillimanite boundary, and that andalusite replaces kyanite during a later event at lower pressure Often by carefully observing the textures one can distinguish partial replacement and metastable coexistence from true stable equilibrium grain boundaries Hietanen (1956) reported all three Al2SiO5 polymorphs in northern Idaho, and proposed that metamorphic events in the area occurred near the invariant point More likely that kyanite is partially replaced by sillimanite during a prograde event near the kyanite-sillimanite boundary, and that andalusite replaces kyanite during a later event at lower pressure

6. 2. Exsolution Covered in Mineralogy and previously in PetrologyCovered in Mineralogy and previously in Petrology

7. 3. Solid-Solid Net-Transfer Reactions Involve solids only Differ from polymorphic transformations: involve solids of differing composition, and thus material must diffuse from one site to another for the reaction to proceed

8. 3. Solid-Solid Net-Transfer Reactions Examples: NaAlSi2O6 + SiO2 = NaAlSi3O8 Jd Qtz Ab MgSiO3 + CaAl2Si2O8 = CaMgSi2O6 + Al2SiO5 En An Di And 4 (Mg,Fe)SiO3 + CaAl2Si2O8 = Opx Plag (Mg,Fe)3Al2Si3O12 + Ca(Mg,Fe)Si2O6 + SiO2 Gnt Cpx Qtz

9. Reaction curves typically pretty straight DS and DV change little S changes more than DS(reaction)Reaction curves typically pretty straight DS and DV change little S changes more than DS(reaction)

10. 3. Solid-Solid Net-Transfer Reactions If minerals contain volatiles, the volatiles must be conserved in the reaction so that no fluid phase is generated or consumed For example, the reaction: Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 + 4 MgSiO3 = Mg7Si8O22(OH)2 Tlc En Ath involves hydrous phases, but conserves H2O It may therefore be treated as a solid-solid net-transfer reaction

11. 3. Solid-Solid Net-Transfer Reactions When solid-solution is limited, solid-solid net-transfer reactions are discontinuous reactions Discontinuous reactions tend to run to completion at a single temperature (at a particular pressure) There is thus an abrupt (discontinuous) change from the reactant assemblage to the product assemblage at the reaction isograd Polymorphic transformations, exsolution, and solid-solid net-transfer reactions with little solid-solution are relatively straightforward metamorphic reactions, and are subject to variations in pressure and temperature, without complications due to variations in rock or fluid compositions The presence of reactants vs. products has often been used, in conjunction with experimental work that constrains the location of the reaction in P-T-X space, to set limits on the temperature and pressure conditions of a metamorphic event Polymorphic transformations, exsolution, and solid-solid net-transfer reactions with little solid-solution are relatively straightforward metamorphic reactions, and are subject to variations in pressure and temperature, without complications due to variations in rock or fluid compositions The presence of reactants vs. products has often been used, in conjunction with experimental work that constrains the location of the reaction in P-T-X space, to set limits on the temperature and pressure conditions of a metamorphic event

12. 4. Devolatilization Reactions Among the most common metamorphic reactions H2O-CO2 systems are most common, but the principles same for any reaction involving volatiles Reactions dependent not only upon temperature and pressure, but also upon the partial pressure of the volatile species

13. 4. Devolatilization Reactions For example the location on a P-T phase diagram of the dehydration reaction: KAl2Si3AlO10(OH)2 + SiO2 = KAlSi3O8 + Al2SiO5 + H2O Ms Qtz Kfs Sill W depends upon the partial pressure of H2O (pH2O) This dependence is easily demonstrated by applying Le Châtelier’s principle to the reaction at equilibrium

14. 4. Devolatilization Reactions The equilibrium curve represents equilibrium between the reactants and products under water-saturated conditions (pH2O = PLithostatic) Fig. 26-2 is a P-T phase diagram showing the equilibrium reaction curve for reaction (26-6) The hydrous assemblage is always on the low-temperature side of the curve, and the evolved fluid phase is liberated as temperature increases The concave upward shape is characteristic of all devolatilization equilibrium curves at low pressure because the slope, as determined by the Clapyron equation is low at low pressures due to the high volume of the gas phase, but steepens quickly at higher pressures because the gas is most easily compressed Fig. 26-2 is a P-T phase diagram showing the equilibrium reaction curve for reaction (26-6) The hydrous assemblage is always on the low-temperature side of the curve, and the evolved fluid phase is liberated as temperature increases The concave upward shape is characteristic of all devolatilization equilibrium curves at low pressure because the slope, as determined by the Clapyron equation is low at low pressures due to the high volume of the gas phase, but steepens quickly at higher pressures because the gas is most easily compressed

15. KAl2Si3AlO10(OH)2 + SiO2 = KAlSi3O8 + Al2SiO5 + H2O Ms Qtz Kfs Sill W Suppose H2O is withdrawn from the system at some point on the water-saturated equilibrium curve: pH2O < Plithostatic According to Le Châtelier’s Principle, removing water at equilibrium will be compensated by the reaction running to the right, thereby producing more water This has the effect of stabilizing the right side of the reaction at the expense of the left side So as water is withdrawn the Kfs + Sill + H2O field expands slightly at the expense of the Mu + Qtz field, and the reaction curve shifts toward lower temperature

16. Fig. 26-2 with the equilibrium curve contoured for various values of pH2O Fig. 26-2 with the equilibrium curve contoured for various values of pH2O

17. 4. Devolatilization Reactions pH2O can become less than PLith by either of two ways Pfluid < PLith by drying out the rock and reducing the fluid content Pfluid = PLith, but the water in the fluid can become diluted by adding another fluid component, such as CO2 or some other volatile phase In Fig. 26-2 I calculated the curves for the latter case on the basis of ideal H2O-CO2 mixing

18. 4. Devolatilization Reactions An important point arising from Fig. 26-2 is: The temperature of an isograd based on a devolatilization reaction is sensitive to the partial pressure of the volatile species involved An alternative: T-Xfluid phase diagram Because H2O and CO2 are by far the most common metamorphic volatiles, the X in T-X diagrams is usually the mole fraction of CO2 (or H2O) in H2O-CO2 mixtures Because pressure is also a common variable, a T-Xfluid diagram must be created for a specified pressure

19. 4. Devolatilization Reactions Fig. 26-4 is a T-XH2O diagram for reaction (26-5) in which PLith = 0.5 GPa Fig. 26-4 is a T-XH2O diagram for reaction (26-5) in which PLith = 0.5 GPa

20. 4. Devolatilization Reactions The dots correspond to the dots in Fig. 26-3, since pH2O + pCO2 = PLith and ideal mixing assumes pH2O = XH2O PLith The dots correspond to the dots in Fig. 26-3, since pH2O + pCO2 = PLith and ideal mixing assumes pH2O = XH2O PLith

21. 4. Devolatilization Reactions Shape of ~ all dehydration curves on T-Xfluid diagrams is similar to the curve in Fig. 26-2 Maximum temperature at the pure H2O end, and slope gently at high XH2O, but steeper toward low XH2O, becoming near vertical at very low XH2O Reaction temperature can thus be practically any temperature below the maximum at pH2O = Plith Must constrain the fluid composition (if possible) before using a dehydration reaction to indicate metamorphic grade

22. A rare exception: the ideal curve for a complete devolatilization reaction curves back at very high pressures The top and low-T side is typically metastable, but in some low-T high-P reactions the retrograde devolatilization portion is stableA rare exception: the ideal curve for a complete devolatilization reaction curves back at very high pressures The top and low-T side is typically metastable, but in some low-T high-P reactions the retrograde devolatilization portion is stable

23. 4. Devolatilization Reactions Decarbonation reactions may be treated in an identical fashion For example, the reaction: CaCO3 + SiO2 = CaSiO3 + CO2 (26-6) Cal Qtz Wo Can also be shown on a T-XCO2 diagram Has the same form as reaction (26-5), only the maximum thermal stability of the carbonate mineral assemblage occurs at pure XCO2

24. 4. Devolatilization Reactions The temperature of a wollastonite isograd based on this reaction is obviously dependent upon pCO2The temperature of a wollastonite isograd based on this reaction is obviously dependent upon pCO2

25. 5 types of devolatilization reactions, each with a unique general shape on a T-X diagram Type 3: Tmax at XCO2 determined by the stoichiometric ratio of CO2/H2O produced CO2 : H2O = 3 : 1 or ¾ to ¼ so Tmax at 0.75 CO2CO2 : H2O = 3 : 1 or ¾ to ¼ so Tmax at 0.75 CO2

26. 5. Continuous Reactions Imagine an idealized field area of steeply dipping metamorphosed pelitic sediments that strike directly up metamorphic grade The bulk chemistry of each unit is homogeneous, but differs somewhat from the other units in the area The garnet-in field isograd varies from unit to unit, occurring at different grades This may occur for one of two reasons (assuming that the rocks represent equilibrium mineral assemblages)Imagine an idealized field area of steeply dipping metamorphosed pelitic sediments that strike directly up metamorphic grade The bulk chemistry of each unit is homogeneous, but differs somewhat from the other units in the area The garnet-in field isograd varies from unit to unit, occurring at different grades This may occur for one of two reasons (assuming that the rocks represent equilibrium mineral assemblages)

27. 5. Continuous Reactions Two possible reasons: 1. Such contrasting composition that the garnet reaction is different Example: garnet in some pelites may be created by the (unbalanced) reaction: Chl + Ms + Qtz ? Grt + Bt + H2O (26-11) Whereas in more Fe-rich and K-poor pelites, garnet might be generated by an (unbalanced) reaction involving chloritoid: Chl + Cld + Qtz ? Grt + H2O (26-12) Offsets in a particular field isograd, when based on different reaction isograds, are often relatively large In the blank unit in the center of the map, garnet isn’t created at all. This could be a Mg-rich sandy pelite, or even a quartzite or marble Offsets in a particular field isograd, when based on different reaction isograds, are often relatively large In the blank unit in the center of the map, garnet isn’t created at all. This could be a Mg-rich sandy pelite, or even a quartzite or marble

28. 5. Continuous Reactions 2. The reaction on which the isograd is based is the same in each unit, but it is a continuous reaction, and its location is sensitive to the composition of the solutions (either solid of fluid) involved The offsets this creates in an isograd are usually more subtle than for reason #1, but in some cases they can be substantial We will concentrate on this second reason here

29. 5. Continuous Reactions A familiar example as illustration Suppose that we want to record the “melt-in” isograd, or the first appearance of a melt The temperature at which melt occurs depends on the Mg/Fe ratio of the bulk composition that we plan to melt 30% vs. 70% Fo would cause a shift in the “melt-in” field isograd of about 265oC! A familiar example as illustration Suppose that we want to record the “melt-in” isograd, or the first appearance of a melt The temperature at which melt occurs depends on the Mg/Fe ratio of the bulk composition that we plan to melt 30% vs. 70% Fo would cause a shift in the “melt-in” field isograd of about 265oC!

30. 5. Continuous Reactions Discontinuous reactions occur at a constant grade Chl + Ms + Qtz ? Grt + Bt + H2O (26-11) in KFASH F = C – f + 2 = 5 – 4 + 2 = 1 They are actually UNIvariant (F = 1) on P-T phase diagrams BUT Pressure and temperature are not really independent, but constrained to follow a geothermal gradient or P-T-t path The P-T path crosses the reaction at a single grad Reaction should occur and run to completion (when one of the reactants was consumed) at a single gradeThey are actually UNIvariant (F = 1) on P-T phase diagrams BUT Pressure and temperature are not really independent, but constrained to follow a geothermal gradient or P-T-t path The P-T path crosses the reaction at a single grad Reaction should occur and run to completion (when one of the reactants was consumed) at a single grade

31. 5. Continuous Reactions Chl + Ms + Qtz ? Grt + Bt + H2O (26-11) in KFMASH were a continuous reaction, then we would find chlorite, muscovite, quartz, biotite, and garnet all together in the same rock over an interval of metamorphic grade above the garnet-in isograd The composition of solid solution phases vary across the interval, and the proportions of the minerals changes until one of the reactants disappears with increasing grade

32. Continuous reactions occur when F ? 1, and the reactants and products coexist over a temperature (or grade) interval

33. 6. Ion Exchange Reactions Reciprocal exchange of components between 2 or more minerals MgSiO3 + CaFeSi2O6 = FeSiO3 + CaMgSi2O6 Annite + Pyrope = Phlogopite + Almandine Expressed as pure end-members, but really involves Mg-Fe (or other) exchange between intermediate solutions Basis for many geothermobarometers Causes rotation of tie-lines on compatibility diagrams

35. 6. Redox Reactions Involves a change in oxidation state of an element 6 Fe2O3 = 4 Fe3O4 + O2 2 Fe3O4 + 3 SiO2 = 3 Fe2SiO4 + O2 Note the range of fO2 in which iron occurs principally in silicate minerals (i.e. most natural rocks).Note the range of fO2 in which iron occurs principally in silicate minerals (i.e. most natural rocks).

36. 7. Reactions Involving Dissolved Species Minerals plus ions neutral molecules dissolved in a fluid One example is hydrolysis: 2 KAlSi3O8 + 2 H+ + H2O = Al2Si2O5 (OH)4 + SiO2 + 2 K+ Kfs aq. species kaolinite aq. species

37. Reactions and Chemographics We can use chemographics to infer reactions It doesn’t mean that they will under any set of conditions (thermodynamic equilibrium dictates that) It doesn’t mean that they will under any set of conditions (thermodynamic equilibrium dictates that)

38. Reactions and Chemographics What reaction does this ternary system allow?

39. Reactions and Chemographics A + B + C = X

40. Reactions and Chemographics What reaction does this system allow?

41. Reactions and Chemographics What reaction is possible between A-B-C-D? Remember that coexisting phases are connected with tie-lines A + B + D or A + B + CRemember that coexisting phases are connected with tie-lines A + B + D or A + B + C

42. Note that phi = 4 at the isograd with crossing tie-lines Then have new groupings : A + C + D or B + C + D No new minerals become stable- simply different associations The groupings follow from the reaction: If A > B then B consumed first, and A remains with new C & D -> A + C + D C + D cannot coexist below the isograd, and A + B cannot coexist above it If a chemographic diagram is a projection, the approach still works, but you will have to balance the reaction with other components For example, if the previous diagram is projected from quartz, SiO2 will have to be added to one side of the A + B = C + D reaction to balance it properlyNote that phi = 4 at the isograd with crossing tie-lines Then have new groupings : A + C + D or B + C + D No new minerals become stable- simply different associations The groupings follow from the reaction: If A > B then B consumed first, and A remains with new C & D -> A + C + D C + D cannot coexist below the isograd, and A + B cannot coexist above it If a chemographic diagram is a projection, the approach still works, but you will have to balance the reaction with other components For example, if the previous diagram is projected from quartz, SiO2 will have to be added to one side of the A + B = C + D reaction to balance it properly

43. Petrogenetic Grids P-T diagrams for multicomponent systems that show a set of reactions, generally for a specific rock type

44. Text figures that I don’t have time to cover in my 1-semester class

45. Text figures that I don’t have time to cover in my 1-semester class

46. Text figures that I don’t have time to cover in my 1-semester class

47. Text figures that I don’t have time to cover in my 1-semester class

48. Text figures that I don’t have time to cover in my 1-semester class

50. Text figures that I don’t have time to cover in my 1-semester class

51. Text figures that I don’t have time to cover in my 1-semester class

  • Login