Lecture 14 Chapter 19 Ideal Gas Law and Kinetic Theory  of Gases  Chapter 20 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamic

Lecture 14 Chapter 19 Ideal Gas Law and Kinetic Theory of Gases Chapter 20 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamic PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Thermal expansion cracking the nut. (Strength of electrical forces)Jug O' Air (Inflate with bike pump and watch temp. rise)p/T = constant Boiling by Cooling (Ice on beaker) Boiling by Reducing Pressure(Vacuum in Bell jar) Dipping Duck Toywet head cools as water evaporates off it -pressur

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Lecture 14 Chapter 19 Ideal Gas Law and Kinetic Theory of Gases Chapter 20 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamic

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1. Lecture 14 Chapter 19 Ideal Gas Law and Kinetic Theory of Gases Chapter 20 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

4. Thermal effects using liquid nitrogen again. For air in the balloon at room temp At room temp we have pV=nRT and T=273K then dip it liquid nitrogen p’V’=nRT with T= 78K, p’V’ should be smaller by a factor of 273/78=3.5 compared to pV So why does the balloon get a lot smaller?

5. Avogadro’s Number

6. Avogadro’s Number

7. Ideal Gases

8. Ideal Gas Law in terms of Boltzman Constant

9. Work done by an ideal gas

10. pV diagram

11. What is the work done by an ideal gas when the temperature is constant?

12. What is the work done by an ideal gas when the temperature is constant?

14. Sample problem 19-2

15. What’s Next

16. Kinetic theory model of a gas: Find p due to one molecule first and then sum them up Assume elastic collisions between walls and molecules and neglect collisions between molecules. Only want the x component of the momentum since the change in y is parallel to surface and does not contribute to the pressure.Assume elastic collisions between walls and molecules and neglect collisions between molecules. Only want the x component of the momentum since the change in y is parallel to surface and does not contribute to the pressure.

17. Assume elastic collisions between walls and molecules and neglect collisions between molecules. Only want the x component of the momentum since the change in y is parallel to surface and does not contribute to the pressure.Assume elastic collisions between walls and molecules and neglect collisions between molecules. Only want the x component of the momentum since the change in y is parallel to surface and does not contribute to the pressure.

18. What is the root mean square of the velocity of the Molecules? Since we have trillions of molecules moving randomly in all directions the square of the speed in any direction is equal. So we can equate the squares of the components and multiply by 3 to get the magnitude. Actually we use the root-mean-square of the speed.Since we have trillions of molecules moving randomly in all directions the square of the speed in any direction is equal. So we can equate the squares of the components and multiply by 3 to get the magnitude. Actually we use the root-mean-square of the speed.

19. Average Molecular speeds at 300 K This is the average speed. Some molecules are going much faster and some slower. On the sun T= 2*106 K and hydrogen is 82 times faster than at vroom temperature. Molecules would break up at such collisions.This is the average speed. Some molecules are going much faster and some slower. On the sun T= 2*106 K and hydrogen is 82 times faster than at vroom temperature. Molecules would break up at such collisions.

20. Average Kinetic Energy of the Molecule When you measure the temperature of the gas, you are measuring the translational energy.When you measure the temperature of the gas, you are measuring the translational energy.

21. Mean Free Path

23. What is v, the speed of a molecule in an ideal gas?

24. Maxwell’s speed distribution law: Explains boiling. It is the faster moving molecules in the tail of the distribution that escape from the surface of a water. It is also the protons in the tail in the sun that have high enough energy to overcome the Coulomb barrier to cause nuclear fusion.It is the faster moving molecules in the tail of the distribution that escape from the surface of a water. It is also the protons in the tail in the sun that have high enough energy to overcome the Coulomb barrier to cause nuclear fusion.

25. Want to relate ?Eint to the kinetic energy of the atoms of the gas.

26. From the heat we can calculate the specific heat for various processes. For example,

27. Lets calculate the specific heat, CV of an ideal gas at constant volume

28. Calculate CV

29. Cv for different gases

30. Specific Heat at Constant Pressure These predictions for the specific heats agree well with experiment as long as gases are nearly ideal.These predictions for the specific heats agree well with experiment as long as gases are nearly ideal.

31. Adiabatic Expansion of an Ideal Gas: Q = 0

32. Adiabatic Expansion of an Ideal Gas: Q = 0

33. Adiabatic Expansion of an Ideal Gas: Q = 0

34. PROBLEM 20-58E

35. Problem 20-61P

38. (b) Find the pressure and volume at points 2 and 3. The pressure at point 1 is 1 atm = 1.013 x 105 Pa.

39. Equipartition Theroem DegreDegre

40. Specific heats including rotational motion

41. CV for a diatomic gas as a function of T Note how each plateau is quantized. Quantum mechanics is required to explain why the vibrational modes are froizen out at lower temperatures.Note how each plateau is quantized. Quantum mechanics is required to explain why the vibrational modes are froizen out at lower temperatures.

42. What is Entropy S? Two equivalent definitions It is a measure of a system’s energy gained or lost as heat per unit temperature. It is also a measure of the ways the atoms can be arranged to make up the system. It is said to be a measure of the disorder of a system.

43. A system tends to move in the direction where entropy increases For an irreversible process the entropy always increases. ?S > 0 For a reversible process it can be 0 or increase.

44. Heat Flow Direction Why does heat flow from hot to cold instead of vice versa? Because the entropy increases. What is this property that controls direction?

45. The statistical nature of entropy Black beans on the right White beans on the left Add some energy by shaking them up and they mix They never will go back together even though energy of conservation is not violated. Again what controls the direction?

46. However, the above formula can only be used to calculate the entropy change if the process is reversible..

49. Isothermal expansion of a gas

50. Example: Four moles of an ideal gas undergo a reversible isothermal expansion from volume V1 to volume V2 = 2V1 at temperature T = 400K.

52. For an ideal gas in any reversible process where the temperature and volume may change, the entropy change is given by the following:

53. Summary

54. Statistical View of Entropy

55. An insulated box containing 6 molecules

56. N=6

58. This shows the number of microstates available for each configuration

59. Statistical View of Entropy

60. Use Stirling formula

61. 2nd Law of Thermodynamics

62. Grading for Phys 631

63. Classes 2007-2008

64. Reminders

65. The Breaking Broomstick Demo

66. Breaking Broomstick Demo

67. Broomstick Breaking Cont.

68. Apparatus

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