Inuit Homelands in Canada
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Inuit Homelands in Canada For our the wonderful educators at Vistas, Visions and Voices Denver, November 2010 by Nadine C. Fabbi. Stan Rogers, 1949-1983 http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=8315817712851371947#. Pytheas of Massalia 4 th century BCE Thule / Ultima Thule

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Inuit Homelands in Canada

For our the wonderful educators at Vistas, Visions and Voices

Denver, November 2010

by Nadine C. Fabbi


Stan Rogers, 1949-1983

http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=8315817712851371947#


Pytheas of Massalia

4th century BCE

Thule / Ultima Thule

“borders beyond the known world”


Carta Marina, 1539


narwhal


Paris, Tapestry, 15th century

Rome, early 1600s


King Christian IV’s throne.

Rosenborg Castle, Copenhagen.


Mercator1595


1576

Frobisher Bay

Iqaluit


Frankenstein, Mary Shelley, 1818


Franklin Expedition - 1845

Terror and Erebus


John Torrington, 20

“Franklinalia”


Roald Amundsen

1903-06


Nanook of the North - 1922


Uggianaqtuq – A Friend Acting Strangely


Long ago, in my childhood, we followed the seasons and the weather. Even the animals, the caribou followed the weather. Now there are hardly any caribou on the island. Life has become unpredictable for all of us. – Sarah Kuptana, Sachs Harbour, Canada


  • Arctic States …

  • eight bordering on Arctic Circle


Arctic Circle - parallel of latitude – 66˚

1/6th of earth’s surface

4 million people / 400,000 aboriginal


Inuit, 155,000


Tree line around the Globe

2,000

55,000

50,000

45,000


155,000

Greenland

Alaska

Canada

Russia


5,000

25,000

5,000

10,000


45,000

Inuvialuit

Nunavut

Nunavik

Nunatsiavut


Tree line / timberline


Jan/Feb 2003

“the purest building the human mind has ever conceived”


caribou


Eskimo - “eaters of raw meat”


inuksukᐃᓄᒃᓱᒃ

inuksuitᐃᓄᒃᓱᐃᑦ


kayak

umiak


Inuit sled dog (Qimmiit) - “intuitive transportation”


34,000,000

1,000,000


Canada’s

Aboriginal

People

1. First Nations

(600,000)

2. Métis (300,000)

3. Inuit (45,000)


First Nations

12,000-24,000 years ago


Métis - “mixed”


mid-1600s to early 1700s:

distinct people “emerge”


Bering Sea Migration - 4,000 yrs ago


Ancestors

Sivullirmiut (to 1000)

Thule/Tuniit (to 1600)

Inuit


History of Relations

1576-mid 19th - exploration

1850s-1930s - whaling/fur industry

1950s/60s - government intervention

1970s on - self-determination


History of Relations …

1850s-1930s - whaling/fur industry


17-20” of blubber


Maine port - casks of whale oil


1/3rd size of the entire body

baleen or whalebone

keratin


up to 700

baleen

“hairs”


Richard

Harrington


John Diefenbaker

1957-63

“ … Sir John A. Macdonald saw Canada from east to west: He opened the west. I see a new Canada -- a Canada of the North. This is the vision."


History of Relations - Self-Determination - 1970s onInuit Tapirisat of Canada - 1971(Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami)


Our Footprints are Everywhere Inuit Land Use and Occupancy


Nunavik – 1975 Inuvialuit - 1984

Nunavut - 1993

Nunatsiavut - 2005


Nunavik

Northern Québec

10,000 Nunavimmiut


James Bay & Northern Québec Agreement

11 November 1975

Zebedee Nungak


Nunavik Creations


Nunavut

“our land”

1 April 1999

20% land mass

85% Inuit


“The birth of Nunavut is a significant step in Canada’s nation building. The territory’s creation is anchored in the central idea that Canada’s flexible federation supports diversity. Nunavut is both an historic and extraordinary achievement. At a time when borders are often a source of strife, the map of Canada is being redrawn in peace and partnership.”


Nunatsiavut - 1 December 2005 - Nunatsiavutmiut


“Inuit are united in Canada”

Mary Simon


1977

Eben Hopson - Alaskan Inuk


  • Arctic States …

  • eight bordering on Arctic Circle


  • Arctic Council

  • Ottawa Declaration 1996


Eight Arctic peoples

Russian North:EvenksKhantyKoryaksNenetsChukchiYukaghir

Saami – Norway/Sweden/Finland/Russia

Inuit – Canada, US, Greenland, Russia

Cartographer / Designer, Philippe Rekacewicz, 2005


Inuit Circumpolar Council

April 2009


“Sovereignty … used to refer to the absolute and independent authority of a community or nation … Sovereignty is a contested concept, however … old ideas of sovereignty are breaking down as different governance models, such as the European Union, evolve.” Article 2.1


  • address growing outside interest in Inuit Nunaat (homeland)

“The conduct of international relations in the Arctic and the resolution of international disputes are not the sole preserve of Arctic states or other states; they are also within the purview of the Arctic’s indigenous peoples.” Article 4.2


Thank you!

Nakurmiik!

Whistler, British Columbia

http://www.youtube.com/user/andshegotaway


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