The BCA Method in Stoichiometry

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Typical Approach to Stoichiometry . Very algorithmicgrams A -->moles A-->moles B-->grams BFosters plug-n-chug solutionDisconnected from balanced equationEspecially poor for limiting reactant problems. BCA Approach. Stresses mole relationships based on coefficients in balanced chemical equationS

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The BCA Method in Stoichiometry

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1. The BCA Method in Stoichiometry Larry Dukerich Modeling Instruction Program Arizona State University

2. Typical Approach to Stoichiometry Very algorithmic grams A -->moles A-->moles B-->grams B Fosters plug-n-chug solution Disconnected from balanced equation Especially poor for limiting reactant problems

3. BCA Approach Stresses mole relationships based on coefficients in balanced chemical equation Sets up equilibrium calculations later (ICE tables) Clearly shows limiting reactants

4. Emphasis on balanced equation Step 1- Balance the equation Hydrogen sulfide gas, which smells like rotten eggs, burns in air to produce sulfur dioxide and water. How many moles of oxygen gas would be needed to completely burn 2.4 moles of hydrogen sulfide? 2 H2S + 3 O2 ----> 2 SO2 + 2 H2O Before: Change After

5. Focus on mole relationships Step 2: fill in the before line 2 H2S + 3 O2 ----> 2 SO2 + 2 H2O Before: 2.4 xs 0 0 Change After Assume more than enough O2 to react

6. Focus on mole relationships Step 3: use ratio of coefficients to determine change 2 H2S + 3 O2 ----> 2 SO2 + 2 H2O Before: 2.4 xs 0 0 Change –2.4 –3.6 +2.4 +2.4 After Reactants are consumed (-), products accumulate (+)

7. Emphasize that change and final state are not equivalent Step 4: Complete the table 2 H2S + 3 O2 ----> 2 SO2 + 2 H2O Before: 2.4 xs 0 0 Change –2.4 –3.6 +2.4 +2.4 After 0 xs 2.4 2.4

8. Complete calculations on the side In this case, desired answer is in moles If mass is required, convert moles to grams in the usual way

9. Only moles go in the BCA table The balanced equation deals with how many, not how much. If given mass of reactants for products, convert to moles first, then use the table.

10. Limiting reactant problems BCA approach distinguishes between what you start with and what reacts. When 0.50 mole of aluminum reacts with 0.72 mole of iodine to form aluminum iodide, how many moles of the excess reactant will remain? How many moles of aluminum iodide will be formed? 2 Al + 3 I2 ----> 2 AlI3 Before: 0.50 0.72 0 Change After

11. Limiting reactant problems Guess which reactant is used up first, then check 2 Al + 3 I2 ----> 2 AlI3 Before: 0.50 0.72 0 Change -0.50 -0.75 After It’s clear to students that there’s not enough I2 to react with all the Al.

12. Limiting reactant problems Now that you have determined the limiting reactant, complete the table, then solve for the desired answer. 2 Al + 3 I2 ----> 2 AlI3 Before: 0.50 0.72 0 Change -0.48 -0.72 +0.48 After 0.02 0 0.48

13. BCA a versatile tool It doesn’t matter what are the units of the initial quantities Mass - use molar mass Gas volume - use molar volume Solution volume - use molarity Convert to moles, then use the BCA table Solve for how many, then for how much

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