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Amino Acid Metabolism. بيوشيمي عمومي گروه علوم دامي دانشکده کشاورزي دانشگاه ياسوج دکتر مختار خواجوی. Role of Amino Acids. Protein monomeric units Energy source Precursors of other biological molecules. In Mammals. Plants and bacteria can produce all of them. Amino acids are precursors.

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Amino acid metabolism

Amino Acid Metabolism

بيوشيمي عمومي

گروه علوم دامي دانشکده کشاورزي دانشگاه ياسوج

دکتر مختار خواجوی


Role of amino acids
Role of Amino Acids

  • Protein monomeric units

  • Energy source

  • Precursors of other biological molecules


In Mammals

Plants and bacteria can produce all of them






Biosynthesis of Amino Acids

The nitrogen cycle


Biosynthesis of Amino Acids

Nitrogen Fixation -> Microorganism


Ammonium Ion Is Assimilated into Amino Acids Through Glutamate and Glutamine

Major Ammonium ion carrier


Biosynthesis of Amino Acids Glutamate and Glutamine


Biosynthesis of Amino Acids in Bacteria and Plants Glutamate and Glutamine

Essential ones are in bold letters



Biosynthesis of amino acids transaminations
Biosynthesis of Amino Acids: Glutamate and GlutamineTransaminations

Amino Acid1 + a-Keto Acid2 Amino Acid2 + a-Keto Acid1

+

Glutamate

Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-

Dependent Aminotransferase

+

a-Ketoglutarate


Products of amino acid breakdown

Glucogenic Glutamate and Glutamine

Pyruvate

– a-Ketoglutarate

Succinyl-CoA

Fumarate

Oxaloacetate

Ketogenic

Acetyl-CoA

Acetoacetate

Products of Amino Acid Breakdown


Animals cannot carryout Glutamate and Glutaminenet synthesis of precursors of gluconeogenesis from acetyl-CoA or acetoacetate


Amino Acid Metabolism Glutamate and Glutamine


Fate of the C-Skeleton of Amino Acids Glutamate and Glutamine


Fate of the C-Skeleton of Amino Acids Glutamate and Glutamine


Fate of the C-Skeleton of Amino Acids Glutamate and Glutamine

Aromatic amino acids need oxygenases + O2



Classification of organisms nitrogen excretion patterns
Classification of Organisms Glutamate and Glutamine(Nitrogen Excretion Patterns)

  • Ammonotelic: ammonia excreting

  • Ureotelic: urea excreting

  • Uricotelic: uric acid excreting


Overall urea cycle liver
Overall Urea Cycle Glutamate and Glutamine(Liver)


Carbamyl phosphate synthetase cps
Carbamyl Phosphate Synthetase (CPS) Glutamate and Glutamine

  • CPSI (Mitochondria)

    • Uses NH3

    • Urea Cycle

  • CPSII (Cytosol)

    • Uses Glutamine

    • Pyrimidine Biosynthesis


Carbamyl phosphate synthetase cps1

Carbamyl Phosphate Synthetase (CPS) Glutamate and Glutamine

Mechanism


Activation of hco 3 by atp
Activation of HCO Glutamate and Glutamine3– by ATP


Displacement of phosphate by nh 3
Displacement of Phosphate by NH Glutamate and Glutamine3


Phosphorylation of carbamate by atp
Phosphorylation of Carbamate by ATP Glutamate and Glutamine


Ornithine transcarbamylase otc mitochondrion
Ornithine Transcarbamylase (OTC) Glutamate and Glutamine(Mitochondrion)


Citrulline Carrier Glutamate and Glutamine

(Ornithine Antiport)


Argininosuccinate synthetase cytosol
Argininosuccinate Synthetase Glutamate and Glutamine(Cytosol)


Mechanism
Mechanism Glutamate and Glutamine


Ammonium Ion is Converted into Urea Glutamate and Glutamine

Urea cycle



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