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New Reactors PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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New Reactors. Bill Borchardt Director, Office of New Reactors. Nuclear Energy Worldwide. There are currently 435 commercial nuclear power reactors operating in 30 countries Nuclear power provides over 16% of the world's electricity and 34% in the European Union.

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New Reactors

Bill Borchardt

Director, Office of New Reactors


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Nuclear Energy Worldwide

  • There are currently 435 commercial nuclear power reactors operating in 30 countries

  • Nuclear power provides over 16% of the world's electricity and 34% in the European Union.

  • 30 more power reactors are under construction, while over 60 are firmly planned


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Conditions of the mid-1980s did not favor nuclear construction

  • Energy efficiency improvements

  • Economic restructuring

  • Significant drop in electricity demand

  • Excess generating capacity

  • Oil (traded fossil energy) price collapse

  • Electricity market liberalization & privatization

  • Regulatory interventions after TMI

  • High Interest rates

  • Chernobyl


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Conditions of today are distinctly different from the mid-1980s

  • Strong energy demand growth

  • Fossil fuels no longer cheap

  • Energy supply security concerns

  • Attractive life cycle costs of nuclear power

  • Pollution control and climate change

  • Excellent operating experience

  • Renewables and efficiency improvements: Low hanging fruit already harvested


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Energy Policy Act of 2005

  • Authorizes federal risk insurance for the next 6 nuclear plants for delays associated with NRC reviews ($500 M for first 2 plants, $250 M for next 4 plants)

  • Nuclear energy production tax credits for the first 6,000 megawatts of electricity from new advanced reactors

  • Authorizes $3 billion in nuclear research and development to support NGNP and NP2010


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National Programs

  • NP2010(Nuclear Power 2010): A joint government/industry cost-shared effort to demonstrate key regulatory processes associated with siting and building new nuclear power plants

  • NGNP (Next Generation Nuclear Plant): A demonstration reactor at Idaho National Laboratory that will serve as a test for advanced reactor technologies and for cogeneration of hydrogen by nuclear energy.

  • GNEP (Global Nuclear Energy Partnership): A program to develop new proliferation-resistant recycling technologies in order to produce more energy, reduce waste, and minimize proliferation concerns.


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NRC Mission

NRC Mission Statement

To regulate the nation's civilian use of byproduct, source, and special nuclear materials to ensure adequate protection of public health and safety, to promote the common defense and security, and to protect the environment.

Office of New Reactors

The Office of New Reactors serves the public interest by enabling the safe, secure, and environmentally responsible use of nuclear power in meeting the nation's future energy needs


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Resurgence of Nuclear Power

  • 29 new plants at 20 sites proposed by the industry

  • Five different plant designs proposed

    • AP1000

    • Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor

    • Evolutionary Power Reactor

    • Advanced Boiling Water Reactor

    • Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor


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New Reactor Licensing Applications

Hearing

Progress Energy - Harris (NC)

Duke – Lee Station (SC)

Hearing

TVA – Bellefonte (AL)

Hearing

Hearing

South Carolina E&G-Summer

Progress Energy–Levy County (FL)

Hearing

Hearing

Vogtle ESP

Hearing

Southern – Vogtle (GA)

Legend:

Post SER/EIS Hearing (other hearing activities occur during ESP/COL safety and environmental reviews)

Design Certification

Early Site Permit

Combined License

Entergy – Grand Gulf (MS)

Hearing

Hearing

North Anna ESP

Hearing

TXU Power –Comanche Peak (TX) COL

Hearing

Dominion - North Anna (VA)

Hearing

Entergy – River Bend (LA)

Hearing

UniStar-Calvert Cliffs (MD)

Hearing

AmerenUE - Callaway

UniStar-Nine Mile Pt (NY)

Hearing

Hearing

DC – Mitsubishi USAPWR

NRG Energy – South Texas Project

Hearing

AEH – Bruneau, ID

PPL - Susquehanna

Amarillo Power

DTE – Fermi - Vender TBD

Hearing

Hearing

Hearing

Hearing

FPL - Site and Vendor TBD

Exelon - Site and Vendor TBD

Hearing

Hearing

Clinton ESP

Hearing

An estimated schedule by Fiscal Year

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

AP1000 Program Review

* Schedules depicted for future activities represent nominal assumed review durations based on submittal time frames in letters of intent from prospective applicants. Actual schedules will be determined when applications are docketed.

Design Cert

ESBWR Program Review

Design Certification

Grand Gulf ESP

Hearing

Design Certification

EPR Program Review

ABWR Program Review

USAPWR Program Review

Unspecified

8/13/07


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EPR

Amarillo Power

Ameren UE

PPL Generation

UNISTAR

AP1000

Duke

NuStart

Progress Energy

S.C. Electric & Gas

Southern Co.

US APWR

TXU Power

US ABWR

NRG Energy

ESBWR

Dominion

Entergy

NuStart

Potential New Reactor Applicants


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Part 52 Licensing Process

  • Provide a more predictable licensing process

  • Resolve safety and environmental issues before authorizing construction

  • Provide for timely & meaningful public participation

  • Encourage standardization of nuclear plant designs

  • Reduce financial risk to nuclear plant licensees


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Part 52 Licensing Process

Early Site Permit

Or

Equivalent Siting Information*

Pre-Construction

Post-Construction

Combined

License Review,

Hearing, and

Decision*

Verification

Of

Regulations

with ITAAC

Reactor

Operation

Decision

Optional

Pre-Application

Review

Standard Design Certification

Or

Equivalent Design information*

*A combined license application can

reference an early site permit, a

standard design certification, both, or

neither. If an early site permit and/or a

standard design certification is not

referenced, the applicant must provide

an equivalent level of information in

the combined license application.

December 13, 2005


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Early Site Permits (ESPs)10 CFR Part 52, Subpart A

  • An ESP is a license (“partial construction permit”)

  • Review scope

    • Site safety

    • Environmental

    • Emergency preparedness

  • Mandatory hearing

  • Permit good for 10-20 years

  • Allows applicant to “bank” a site

  • Two ESPs issued (Clinton and Grand Gulf), 2 under review (North Anna and Vogtle)


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Standard Design Certifications

  • Allows an applicant to obtain pre-approval of a standard nuclear plant design through rulemaking

  • Reduces licensing uncertainty by resolving design issues early in the licensing process

  • Facilitates standardization

  • Higher degree of regulatory finality

  • Certification good for 15 years

  • 4 designs approved: (C-E System 80+; GE Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR); Westinghouse AP600; Westinghouse AP1000),

  • 1 design under review (General Electric ESBWR),

  • 2 designs in pre-application activities (Areva EPR and the Mitsubishi US APWR).


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Combined Licenses10 CFR Part 52, Subpart C

  • Combined License (COL) = a combined construction permit and operating license with conditions

  • A COL is the fundamental licensing process in Part 52 for reducing the financial risks for electric companies building nuclear power plants

  • COL can reference ESP, DCR, both, or neither

  • Must meet technical standards in Parts 50, 100, etc.

  • 40 year duration


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New Construction

  • Nuclear plants will be built more rapidly than their predecessors

  • Detailed engineering will be essentially complete by start of construction

  • Modular construction techniques will be used

  • Fabrication of components may begin before COL issuance

  • Components and modules will be fabricated in other countries


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Security for New Reactors

  • Commission Policy Statement modified to encourage applicants to consider security early in the design

  • Staff to perform aircraft impact assessments on new designs

  • Part 52 to be revised to require applicants to perform aircraft impact assessments

  • Sharing insights with other countries


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Digital Instrumentation & Controls

  • Key Technical Issues:

    • Cyber security

    • diversity and defense-in-depth

    • highly integrated control rooms - human factors

    • highly integrated control rooms - communications

    • risk-informed digital I&C


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Multinational Design Evaluation Program

  • Stage 1 – Trilateral agreement to share information and reviews on EPR design

    • Finland, France, and U.S.

  • Stage 2 – 10 countries participating

    • Exploring opportunities for convergence of safety goals and regulatory practices

  • Stage 3 – implementation stage


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Challenges for New Construction

  • Ability of the grid to support new construction

  • Large component manufacturing

  • Workforce / staffing


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ABWR

  • Design Certification

    - May 1997

  • 1350 MWe

    evolutionary design

  • Vessel mounted internal recirc pumps

  • Fine motion control rod drives

  • Digital I&C

  • 3 full train ECCS


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System 80+

  • Design Certification

    - May 1997

  • 1350 MWe

    evolutionary design

  • Complete plant design based on System 80 NSSS and Cherokee/Perkins BOP

  • Advanced Control Room

  • Severe accident prevention and mitigation


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AP600

  • Design Certification

    – December 1999

  • 600 MWe advanced reactor design

  • Digital I&C

  • Passive Safety Systems

    • Passive safety injection

    • Passive residual heat removal

    • External reactor vessel cooling


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AP1000

  • 1117 MWe

  • Passive containment cooling system with steel containment vessel and natural circulation air flow

  • Gravity drain core makeup tanks and refueling water storage tanks

  • Natural circulation heat exchangers connected to RCS

  • Design Certification Rule - December 2005


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ESBWR

  • “Economic and Simplified BWR”

  • 1390 MWe GE reactor based on Simplified BWR and Advanced BWR

  • Natural circulation

  • Passive safety systems

  • Design Certification Application submitted and staff review underway


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EPR

  • 1600 MWe evolutionary design

  • Four 100% capacity engineered safety feature trains

  • Double-walled containment

  • Corium spreading area for severe accident mitigation

  • Pre-application review beginning

  • Design certification application planned for late CY 2007


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