In 182 B.C. …[ while still at war],
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PERGAMON ACROPOLIS

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In 182 B.C. …[ while still at war], Eumenes founded a great new Panhellenic cultural festival at Pergamon, called the Nikephoria, in honor of Athena.  To enhance the inauguration of this festival, the sanctuary of Athena on the acropolis was expanded and refurbished, and the terrace on which the great altar of Zeus was to be built was laid out.  Most probably these constructions were the first steps in an overall building program that Eumenes and his architects had begun to formulate at the end of the Bithynian war and that was to continue for forty years. In the end it was to bring an external grandeur to Pergamon that was matched by no other Hellenistic city. Even today, when its history is largely forgotten, the physical remains of the city are widely studied and admired."  The Sculpture of Pergamon. P. 82 Architect/sculptors: Epigonos, Antigonos, Pyromachus, Stratonikos

Supervise 40 sculptors from around the Aegean, including Athens, Rhodes, Delos, and Pergamon in the creation of 100 figures in a frieze running around the outside of the building's base. The frieze's subject matter can be construed as a "Gigantomachy": the battle between the Olympic gods and the earlier generations of Giants (Gaia and Ouranos' multiple offspring). The base of the altar is surmounted by an ionic colonnade; the roof was potentially decorated with animal figures.  Around the sacrificial altar itself, a second smaller frieze depicts the adventures of Telephos, an ancestor of Eumenes, linking him to heroic and divine origins through Hercules, Dionysus, and Zeus.


PERGAMON ACROPOLIS


PERGAMON ACROPOLIS


PERGAMON ACROPOLIS


PERGAMON ACROPOLIS


ALTAR OF ZEUS, PERGAMON


ALTAR OF ZEUS, PERGAMON


PERGAMON ACROPOLIS


PERGAMON ACROPOLIS


PERGAMON ACROPOLIS


PERGAMON ACROPOLIS


PERGAMON ACROPOLIS


PERGAMON ACROPOLIS


PERGAMON ACROPOLIS


PERGAMON ACROPOLIS


EAST FRIEZE

From L--> R

Hecate & Clytius, Artemis & Eros, Leto & Tityos, Apollo, Udaios & Ephialtes, Demeter, Hera, the Winds, Heracles, Zeus & Porphyrion, Athena & Alkyoneus, Gaia, Nike, Ares


EAST : ZEUS


EAST : ZEUS


EAST : ZEUS


EAST : ATHENA


EAST : PORPHYRION


EAST: HECATE


EAST : OTOS


EAST : NIKE


EAST


EAST : EPHIALTES?


EAST : CLYTIUS


EAST


EAST : CLYTIUS


EAST


NORTH FRIEZE

From L--> R

Aphrodite, Eros, Dione, Phobos, Deimos, Orion, Enyo, Erinyes?

the Fates, gorgons, and Triton


CURRENT CONDITION

RECREATED

NORTH


CURRENT CONDITION

RECREATED

NORTH


NORTH : GORGONS & TRITON


NORTH : GORGONS


NORTH : DEIMOS & ORION


NORTH : APHRODITE & EROS

NORTH


NORTH : APHRODITE & EROS


NORTH : FATES


NORTH : GORGONS


NORTH : GORGONS

NORTH


NORTH : EROS


NORTH : GORGONS


NORTH : GORGONS

NORTH


NORTH : GORGONS

NORTH


NORTH


NORTH : FATES


SOUTH FRIEZE

From L--> R

Rhea, Adrasteia, Hephaestus, Eos, Helios, Thea, Selene, Aither, Uranos, Themis, Pheobe, Asteria


VIEW OF WEST & SOUTH FRIEZE


SOUTH : RHEA & ADRASTEIA


SOUTH : EOS


SOUTH : SELENE


SOUTH : EOS


WEST FRIEZE

From L--> R

Triton, Amphitrite, Nereus & Doris, Oceanus & Thetis, Nymphs, Saturn, Dionysos, Semele & Pelorus


WEST: TRITON


WEST: NEREUS & DORIS


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