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“ Learning is finding out what you already know . Doing is demonstrating that you know it. Teaching is reminding others that they know just as well as you do . We are all Learners, Doers, Teachers” R. Bach. Principles and Methods in Training: Training of Trainers (ToT).

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slide1

“Learningis finding out what you already know. Doingis demonstrating that you know it. Teachingis reminding others that they know just as well as you do.

We are all Learners, Doers, Teachers”

R. Bach

principles and methods in training training of trainers tot

Principles and Methods in Training: Training of Trainers (ToT)

17th EPIET introductory course

Lazareto, Menorca, Spain

07 October 2011

Biagio Pedalino

what are we going to do
What are we going to do?
  • Define adults learning characteristics
  • Present interactive teaching methodologies
  • Design objectives for training activities
  • List the necessary items to prepare a training course
  • Practice designing a training course
slide4
Why?
  • To improve our training skills
  • To develop some of the core competencies for field epidemiologist in the EU as:
    • Training
  • To provide elements to achieve one of the EPIET objectives: to teach public health professionals
basic principles of adults learning
Basic Principles of Adults learning
  • Take into consideration:
    • Need to know what they are learning and why
    • Values and pre-conceptions
    • Experience (life experience)
    • Tiredness, problems, etc.
    • Are practical and problem solvers
basic principles of adults learning1
Basic Principles of Adults learning
  • Subject, matter relevant to his/her own purpose
  • Learning by doing
  • Applying information to current, real-world needs
  • Exchanging feedback about experiences
    • learners benefit a great deal from ongoing feedback around their experiences when applying new information and materials
slide7

“Self initiated learning involving the whole person (feelings as well as intellect) is the most pervasive and lasting type of learning.” (Knowles, 40)

thus we privilege teaching methods which promote
… thus we privilege teaching methods which promote:
  • Emphasis in the process instead the results
  • Interactivity
  • Active participation (interaction with others)
  • Discussion
  • Experience
  • Appropriate motivational context
  • Development of skills, attitudes and values
  • Applied to real life problems
  • Etc…
slide9

Design of Training Activities

WHY and WHAT

to teach

Fundaments

Objectives

Contents

Competences

WHAT,

HOW and

WHEN to evaluate

Program

Knowledge

WHEN to teach

Participants

Procedures/skills

Attitudes

Trainer

Timing

Methodology

HOW to teach

9

9

we need a plan
We need a plan
  • Why and What to teach? It provides information on the needs, objectives and content of training
  • When to teach? It tells us how to order and sequence objectives and content
  • How do you teach? Planning the activities (i.e. material and methods)
  • What, how and when to evaluate? If you have achieved the desired objectives
what is missing so far
Our target population !!!

Their needs

Their motivation

Their expectations

What is missing so far ???
teaching methods activity

Teaching methods activity

…get ready for some action…

instructions
Instructions
  • You have been distributed in the room to constitute your “home group” (5 members with the same number, 1 to 8)
  • Look in the room for other participants with the same name and constitute another group
  • This is now your “expert group” (8 members with the same name)
slide14

HOME GROUP

5 persons each

EXPERT GROUP

8 persons each

1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2

Mantel-Haenszel (12 3 4 5 6 7 )

8

3 3 3 3 3

(12 3 4 5 6 7 )

Kruskal-Wallis

8

4 4 4 4 4

(12 3 4 5 6 7 )

8

Kaplan-Meier

5 5 5 5 5

Fisher

(12 3 4 5 6 7 )

8

6 6 6 6 6

(12 3 4 5 6 7 )

Snow

8

7 7 7 7 7

8 8 8 8 8 8

tree activity
Tree activity

With the material provided (1 pen, 2 sheets and 9 toothpicks):

  • Try to make, with the toothpicks, as many trees as you can without repetitions
  • Draw each new tree in the paper
    • (definition of tree: 1 trunk + 3 or 4 branches)
instructions1
Instructions

Has to be a collaborative design

SILENCE

Laugh is allowed

Free role distribution within the group

You have 5 minutes!

think in the group in 5
Think in the group in 5´:
  • Name a “reporter” and answer this questions:
  • How many trees did you draw?
  • What happend during the activity?
  • What did you observed?
  • Did you develop a group strategy?
  • Any lesson learnt for the next

group activity?

more questions
More questions:

How did you feel in the group?

What was your reaction to the task?

Which was your role?

How did you assign the roles?

How did you feel about the person who was slow at seeing the solutions? If you were that person, how did you feel?

Was there a climate that helped or hindered? How was the climate?

Other observations, comments, learning points?

next activity 10
Next activity: 10´
  • Read the paper individually
  • The group discuss and answer this questions:
  • Explain briefly the technique
  • When is it appropiate to use it?
  • Which is the role of facilitator/moderator?

- Take your notes, after you will explain this information in your “home group” (2 minutes each technique)

home group 10
Home group. 10´:
  • Split from the expert group and go back to your “home group” (all members with the same number)
  • Name a “timekeeper” to control the time
  • Each “expert” share his/her knowledge built in the previous group
  • 2 minutes per expert
now you know more about
Now you know more about:
  • Active Learning Methods
  • Phillips 6-6
  • Role Play
  • Snow Ball
  • Brainstorming
  • Jigsaw/Puzzle
  • Ice breakers
description of jigsaw technique
Description of Jigsaw Technique
  • Group-work method for teaching, learning and participating in group learning activities
  • Cooperative learning strategy
    • enables each participant of a “home” group
    • to specialize in one aspect (“expert”) of a learning unit to resolve a task or class project
example of jigsaw technique
Example of Jigsaw Technique

Home

group 1

Home

group 2

Home

group 3

Home

group 4

Expert

group 3

Expert

group 1

Expert

group 2

Expert

group 4

Picture from: http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/coursedesign/tutorial/jigsaw.html

what are the benefit of the jigsaw
What are the benefit of the Jigsaw?

Efficient way to learn

Encourages listening, engagement, and empathy

by giving each member of the group an essential part to play in the activity (i.e. to acquire an expertise)

Group members must work together as a team to accomplish a common goal

Each person depends on all the others

No student can succeed completely unless everyone works well together as a team

what are the benefit of the jigsaw1
What are the benefit of the Jigsaw?

Interpersonal and Social skills

Leadership

Decision-making

Trust-building

Communication

Conflict-management skills

Etc.

FG,Atilim University, 2007

core competency benefits gained from using the jigsaw technique
Core competency benefits gained from using the Jigsaw technique

M. Kamensky, 2010

PARTICIPANTS WILL…

  • have the opportunity to teach themselves, instead of having material presented to them
  • have practice in peer teaching, which requires that they understand the material at a deeper level
  • contribute meaningfully to a group discussion while developing an area of expertise within the overall project
ten core competency benefits gained from using the jigsaw technique
Ten Core competency benefits gained from using the Jigsaw technique

M. Kamensky, 2010

  • have an opportunity to demonstrate a high level of personal responsibility
  • think creatively and reflectively, devising new, differentiated ways of approaching, teaching, and presenting material
  • work towards a common goal by sharpening their cooperative and teamwork skills.
training activity
Training activity
  • You are a fellow in your public health institute. Your supervisor asks you to prepare a course.
  • In groups of 8 (expert groups) with two facilitators and following the template provided, you are required to prepare a training activity (45 minutes)
  • The “reporter” of the group will summarize the training developed to his/her group
slide31

Design of Training Activities

WHY and WHAT

to teach

Fundaments

Objectives

Contents

Competences

WHAT,

HOW and

WHEN to evaluate

Program

Knowledge

WHEN to teach

Participants

Procedures/skills

Attitudes

Trainer

Timing

Methodology

HOW to teach

31

31

trainers
TRAINERS
  • Take into account to make an assessment about:
  • motivation, needs, expectations of the target
  • possible “difficulties” for learning (travelling, family responsibilities, cost, time, language, materials, different levels, nationalities, etc.)
questions about the target group
Questions about the target group:
  • Which are the training needs of the target group?
  • Which is their knowledge level about the content?
  • Do you know which competences should they acquire?
  • What do you expect that they should learn after the training course?
  • Can you describe suitable attitudes that the target might acquire during the training? And procedure skills?
general objective
General objective
  • Global goal of the course:
  • Give an overview of the main aspects of vaccination issues in public health
  • Strengthen participant knowledge and skills related to surveillance of vaccine preventable diseases (VPD) and immunization programmes
  • Provide training and practical experience in intervention epidemiology at the national centres for surveillance and control of communicable diseases in the EU and Norway
  • Explain the main pedagogical aspects for training activities
objectives
Objectives

The three domains of learning:

Cognitive/Knowledge domain that emphasizes thinking and knowledge (concepts)

Skills domain featuring doing (Psychomotor). Manual or physically skills and performance of actions

Attitude domain highlighting attitudes, values, interests, attention, concern, responsibility, ability to listen, respond and demonstrate interactions with others

cognitive knowledge domain
Cognitive/Knowledge domain

Examples:

  • Describe the concepts of virology, bacteriology, immunology related to the different test formats.
  • Select, prioritize and structure information relevant to the decision process.
  • Define the advantages and limitations of forecasting.
  • Evaluate vaccination programmes, surveillance of vaccine preventable diseases, vaccine uptake, vaccine safety, immune status, sero-epidemiology and vaccine effectiveness
  • Explain principles for designing information and vaccination campaigns
  • Design a training activity
skills domain
Skills domain
  • Develop basic computer programmatic and analytical skills
  • Assess the magnitude of an event in terms of severity, extension in time and in space, affected population, probability of spread, existence of control measures, etc
  • Apply criteria and algorithms to decide on its reporting at the EU (EWRS criteria)
  • Carry out analysis for cohort and (matched) case-control studies, including stratified and multivariable analysis.
  • Collect an adequate specimen
  • Perform interactive teaching techniques
attitude domain
Attitude domain
  • Develop a European network of public health epidemiologist with common methods and objectives
  • Be comfortable in the communication of a decision
  • Encourage collaboration between groups to share information
  • Implement collaborative activities and teamwork with other professionals
  • Realize the ethics behaviour
  • Improve active listening
  • Develop emotional skills (emphaty, assertive, etc.)
  • Critically appraise and cope with the consequences of wrong decisions
  • Negotiate a project
  • Improve team work skills
qualities of an objective
Qualities of an objective

Relevant

Specific

Observable and measurable

objectives1
Objectives

There are important components writing objectives:

the action verb (Infinitive)

One verb per objective (recommended)

3) Measurable

4) Intended audience

At the end of the module/course, participants will be able to:

Waller, K.

choice of an active verb
Choice of an active verb

Open to less interpretation and easy to observe or measure:

  • Describe
  • Resolve
  • List
  • Compare
  • Evaluate
  • Identify
  • Design
  • Explain
  • Select
  • Distinguish
  • Construct
  • Solve

Open to many interpretation and difficult to observe or measure:

  • Know
  • Understand
  • Believe
  • Have faith in
  • Be familiar with
  • Appreciate
  • Be aware of
  • Have a good grasp of
  • Have a knowledge of
  • Realise the significance of
  • Believe
  • Be interested in

Better

Arlette Communier

examples
Examples

Explain the objective of a surveillance system

List the mandatory diseases

Communicate with general and professional public

Formulate a case definition

Report the data weekly or monthly according to the situation

Use the notification forms

Write situation reports

Encourage collaboration between multidisciplinary groups

Promote communication between departments

….

for your activity
For your activity
  • Write, at least, two objectives for knowledge and skills and one for attitude
  • Choose the content of the course related with the topic, target group, etc.
  • Time. Specify the duration of the course in hours (10h, 20h, 30h, etc)
for your activity1
For your activity
  • Learning material/method: pre-module workbook; facilitator guidelines, PowerPoint presentation, flip chart template, handouts and references.Ice breaker, formal presentations, Role Playing, Phillips 66, Snow bowling, Peer and group discussion, practice in lab, etc.
  • Competencies A competency is a combination of knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, motivation and abilities that a professional must demonstrate and that are critical to perform work effectively

Example: Implement public health programmes: translate policy into public health practice

training activity1
Training activity

You are a fellow in your public health institute. Your supervisor asks you to prepare a course.

In groups of 8 (expert groups) with two facilitators and following the template provided, you are required to prepare a training activity (45 minutes)

The “reporter” of the group will summarize the training developed to his/her group

slide47

Design of Training Activities

WHY and WHAT

to teach

Fundaments

Objectives

Contents

Competences

WHAT,

HOW and

WHEN to evaluate

Program

Knowledge

WHEN to teach

Participants

Procedures/skills

Attitudes

Trainer

Timing

Methodology

HOW to teach

47

47

evaluation
Evaluation

Needs

Adequation

between:

Before the implementation

Planification

Process

Trainees

During the implementation

Survey, discussion,

one minute paper, etc.

Impact

After the training

Arlette Communier

references
References
  • BIGGS, J. (2005): Calidad del aprendizaje universitario. Madrid: Narcea.
  • ECDC Core competences http://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications/Publications/Forms/ECDC_DispForm.aspx?ID=108ATHERTON J S (2010) Learning and Teaching; Angles on learning, particularly after the schooling years [On-line] UK: Available: http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/index.htm
  • Interactive learning techniques: http://www.calstatela.edu/dept/chem/chem2/Active/
  • Knowles, Malcolm, Holton, Elwood, Swanson, Richard, The Adult Learner, fifth edition, Gulf Publishing Company, 1998. http://www.texascollaborative.org/PDFs/Active%20Learning%20Strategies_02.pdf
  • Morable, L.(2000): Using active learning techniques. On line: http://www.texascollaborative.org/PDFs/Active%20Learning%20Strategies_02.pdf
  • Waller, K. Writing instructional objectives. On line http://www.naacls.org/docs/announcement/writing-objectives.pdf
slide50

Thank you for your attention

“The nicest thing about not planning is that failure comes as a complete surprise”

 John Preston

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