Word Choice. A Few Questions…. Is scientific writing the same as literary writing (like Shakespeare)? Do you write it like you would write a novel? Is elaboration necessary? Is it necessary to put a lot of details? What is the goal for Scientific Writing?.
To win the Nobel price of Medicine but not Nobel price of Literature
There are two kinds of scientific writing: that which is intended to be read, and that which is intended merely to show figures.
reduced by 80% intended to be read, and that which is intended merely to show figures.
cause intended to be read, and that which is intended merely to show figures.
Heparin containing plasma
girls intended to be read, and that which is intended merely to show figures.
increase pain intended to be read, and that which is intended merely to show figures.
toward the live
in the cytoplasm intended to be read, and that which is intended merely to show figures.
of these changes
GOOD: The car that is speeding down the road
is about to crash into a pole.
OK: The car, which is speeding down the road,
is about to crash into a pole.
CAREFUL: Max’s head was throbbing; Lyn’s heart was sinking.
The semicolon implies that there is a connection between Max’s
head throb and Lyn’s sinking heart!!
BAD: Holly wanted to live on a farm with plenty of chickens;
and to have a stellar career as well.
GOOD: This machine is difficult to use; for example, it
crashes whenever you turn it on.
GOOD: This talk does not assume that you know the basics:
how to form a sentence, how to use words and how
to laugh at your mistakes.
The difference between intended to be read, and that which is intended merely to show figures. grant and paper writing
Remember- intended to be read, and that which is intended merely to show figures.
Reviewers are busy!!!!
Make sure they got your idea the first time (even they read it on the road or when feeding baby)
Key Points of Your Proposal intended to be read, and that which is intended merely to show figures.
Whatis your question
Why is your study important
How are you going to do it
The grant should consist of …. intended to be read, and that which is intended merely to show figures.
Chinese and English title and abstracts overview
Hypothesis and Specific aims What is your question
Background What people need to know about this field
Significance Why it is an important question
Preliminary data evidence you have so far
Research design and methods how you going to test
Anticipated results potential answer to your question
References you ideas are not from nowhere
Early onset breast cancer has been the unique and major health problem in Taiwan with annual increase-----
The etiology and mechanisms of breast cancer in young women is unknown. It has been suggested that carcinogenesis in utero may account for the early-onset of this cancer-------------
To test this hypothesis, we have used fed pregnant mice with fatty diet and found increase in incidence of mammary tumors in the new born mice.----------------------
Background and preliminary data
In this proposal, we will examine the alteration of mammary gland differentiation pathway in the mammary tumors derived from the new born mice using microarray, SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression) as well real-time PCR techniques -------------
This study of alterations in mammary gland differentiation in the mammary tumor of new born mice will allow us to identify the genetic and molecular mechanisms involved in the early-onset breast cancer.
This information could be useful for diagnosis/treatment of early-onset breast cancer in Taiwan---------------------------
Hypothesis and Specific Aims health problem in Taiwan with annual increase-----
Hypothesis and Specific Aims
Objective, rationale, and hypothesis
Specific aim 1
Specific aim 2
Specific aim 3
Potential outcomes + significance
Hypothesis non fingo!
A health problem in Taiwan with annual increase-----im 1: To evaluate the protective effect of collagen VI under multiple types of lesions in vitro and in vivo.
Aim 2: To identify the mediators for the protective effect of collagen VI.
Aim 3: To determine the transcription machinery regulating Ab-induced COL6A1 expression
Example for model figure and specific aims health problem in Taiwan with annual increase-----
Aim 1: To explore the molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling apoE expression in CNS neurons.
Aim 2: To determine if inhibiting apoE4 proteolysis by mutating the primary cleavage sites reduces or abolishes apoE4-related neuronal and behavioral deficits in transgenic mice.
Specific Aim 3: To explore the cellular mechanisms underlying the selective vulnerability of different CNS neurons to apoE4 and its fragments in vitro and in vivo.
Specific Aim 1. health problem in Taiwan with annual increase-----Determine if the impairment of vulnerable neurons in the dentate gyrus of hAPP mice depends on the production of hAPP/A by these cells.
Specific Aim 2. Determine if modulation of specific excitotoxicity-related neuronal or glial proteins will normalize neuronal activity and cognitive functions in hAPP mice.
Specific Aim 3. Determine if reducing the level of endogenous, soluble tau protects against diverse proteinopathies.
Specific Aim 1. Determine the age- and time dependence of the requirement for tau in APP/Aβ-induced neuronal dysfunction.
Specific Aim 2. Examine the role of specific tau phosphorylation sites in enabling APP/Aβ-induced neuronal dysfunction.
Specific Aim 3. Identify the downstream
mechanisms by which tau enables APP/Aβ-induced neuronal dysfunction.
Specific Aim #1.Identification of downstream genes involved in ----.
This purpose of this aim will test the hypothesis that-------. This study will be able to allow us to identify -----
Subaim 1a: Yeast two-hybrid technique will be used to ----- Subaim 1b: Deletion analysis will be used to -----
The design should follow the specific aims and test the hypothesis
Problems with English the requirement for tau in APP/A
The result of all the molecular events and regulatory processes in the cells are reflected in the phenotypes of the organism
After extraction RNA precipitate with alcohol.
The extracted RNA will be precipitated with alcohol.
After separated in the gel electrophorsis the scientist eluted the proteins by electroporation.
The protein will be separated by gel electrophorsis and eluted by electroporation.