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THE IMPACT OF CULTURE on management and leading styles, working and thinking styles, learning and teaching styles. Seminar: The training of cross-cultural competence and skills Lecturer: Prof. Dr. Beneke Students: Anke Boettcher, Kathrin Pinker. Introduction Attitudes towards culture

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THE IMPACT OF CULTURE on management and leading styles,working and thinking styles,learning and teaching styles

Seminar: The training of cross-cultural competence and skills

Lecturer: Prof. Dr. Beneke

Students: Anke Boettcher, Kathrin Pinker

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Introduction
  • Attitudes towards culture
  • National culture
  • Corporate culture
  • Different business areas
  • Conclusion

The impact of culture 11/20/01

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technologyleadership

negotiationcreativity

feedback

time rewards

labels

science

machines hierarchies

The impact of culture 11/20/01

attitudes towards culture
Attitudes towards culture
  • Parochialism –“our way is the only way”
  • Cultural Blindness - People do not recognize cultural differences in order to be just and to treat everybody equally.
  • Ethocentrism – “our way is the best way”
  • Synergy – Cultural diversity is recognized and can lead to both advantages and disadvantages.

The impact of culture 11/20/01

synergy
Synergy
  • Cultural diversity  key ressource
  • Managing the impact of diversity rather than ignoring the diversity
  • Result is more than the sum of the single contributions
  • Advantages: more flexible, creative and open to new ideas

The impact of culture 11/20/01

synergy1
Synergy

Culturally synergistic Problem Solving

  • Recognition of the problem
  • Analysis from different perspectives
  • Solution appropriate for all cultures

The impact of culture 11/20/01

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Introduction

  • Attitudes towards culture
  • National culture
  • Corporate culture
  • Different business areas
  • Conclusion

The impact of culture 11/20/01

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First example:Management by objectives(employer and employee decide together on an objective, which the employee has to achieve within a certain time. After that period of time the result is evaluated.)

Crucial dimensions are:

  • Power distance
  • Individualism
  • Relation to nature

The impact of culture 11/20/01

second example feedback
Second example: Feedback

Crucial dimensions:

  • Individualism (losing face)
  • Relation to nature
  • Communication style

The impact of culture 11/20/01

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Introduction

  • Attitudes towards culture
  • National culture
  • Corporate culture
      • Family culture
      • Eiffel Tower culture
      • Guided Missile culture
      • Incubator culture
  • Different business areas
  • Conclusion

The impact of culture 11/20/01

the family culture
The Family Culture
  • Person-oriented
  • Hierarchical: father-children relationship
  • Ascribed status
  • Culture clusters: Greece, Italy, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Spain, other nations which industrialized late and smaller companies

The impact of culture 11/20/01

the eiffel tower culture
The Eiffel Tower Culture
  • Hierarchies
  • Ascribed status to a role and not to a person
  • Task-oriented
  • Personal relationships are not desired
  • Culture clusters: Austria and Germany

The impact of culture 11/20/01

the guided missile culture
The Guided Missile Culture
  • Egalitarian
  • Task-oriented
  • Status is achieved
  • Individualistic
  • Culture clusters: USA, Norway, Ireland

The impact of culture 11/20/01

the incubator culture
The Incubator Culture
  • Person-oriented
  • Egalitarian
  • Minimal hierarchies and structure
  • Creative and spontaneous
  • Leadership is achieved
  • Culture Clusters: Sweden,USA (Silicon Valley), UK (Silicon Glen) and smaller companies

The impact of culture 11/20/01

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Introduction

  • Attitudes towards culture
  • National culture
  • Corporate culture
  • Different business areas
      • Leadership
      • Motivation
      • Decision making
      • Example Japan
  • Conclusion

The impact of culture 11/20/01

leadership
Leadership

McGregor (1957)

  • Theory X
    • people are basically lazy, dislike work
    • tight control system
  • Theory Y
    • people are trustworthy, enjoy work
    • are given autonomy and responsibility

The impact of culture 11/20/01

leadership1
Leadership

William Ouchi (1982)

  • Theory Z
    • based on Japanese management
    • lifetime employment, concern for the total person
    • close and trusting relationships to improve productivity

The impact of culture 11/20/01

motivation
Motivation

Abraham Maslow (1954) – Hierarchy of needs

  • Physiological, safety, social, esteem and self-actualization needs

The impact of culture 11/20/01

motivation1
Motivation

David McClelland (1961) – Achievement Theory

  • Achievement, power and affiliation

Victor Vroom (1964) – Expectancy Theory

  • People estimate their ability to perform a task and the probable type of reward

The impact of culture 11/20/01

motivation theories
Motivation Theories
  • Abraham Maslow (1954) – Hierarchy of needs
    • Physiological, safety, social, esteem and self-actualization needs
  • David McClelland (1961) – Achievement Theory
    • Achievement, power and affiliation
  • Victor Vroom (1964) – Expectancy Theory
    • People estimate their ability to perform a task and the probable type of reward

The impact of culture 11/20/01

decision making
Decision making
  • Problem recognition
  • Information research
  • Construction of alternatives
  • Choice
  • Implementation

The impact of culture 11/20/01

product design for japan
Product-design for Japan
  • Prefer quality and are willing to pay premium prices
  • Different taste: less sugar and salt
  • Smaller servings
  • Different body shape

The impact of culture 11/20/01

japanese television advertising
Japanese television advertising
  • Length: 15 seconds or less
  • Mood advertising

- non-verbally or with few words

- emotion, humour, shock

- good first impression

The impact of culture 11/20/01

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Culture has a very important impact onbusiness, but not everything can be explained by it
  • Other influences: individual character, situation, legal system etc.

The impact of culture 11/20/01

literature
Literature
  • Adler, Nancy (1991), International Dimensions of Organizational Behaviour, 2nd ed., Belmont: Wadsworth
  • Henderson, George/Spigner-Littles, Dorscine (1996), A practitioner‘s guide to understanding indigenous and foreign cultures, 2nd ed., Springfield: Thomas Books
  • Trompenaars, Fons (1998), Riding the ways of cultures, 2nd ed., New York et al: McGraw-Hill
  • March, Robert (1990), Honoring the customer. Marketing and selling to the Japanese, New York et al: Wiley and Sons
  • Beneke, Jürgen (2000),Orientation Matrix, University of Hildesheim

The impact of culture 11/20/01

literature1
Literature
  • Hofstede, Geert (1997), Cultures and Organizations, New York et al.: McGraw-Hill
  • Knapp, Karlfried et al. (eds.)(1999), Meeting the Intercultural Challenge, Sternenfels: Verlag Wissenschaft und Praxis

The impact of culture 11/20/01

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