THE IMPACT OF CULTURE
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THE IMPACT OF CULTURE on management and leading styles, working and thinking styles, learning and teaching styles. Seminar: The training of cross-cultural competence and skills Lecturer: Prof. Dr. Beneke Students: Anke Boettcher, Kathrin Pinker. Introduction Attitudes towards culture

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THE IMPACT OF CULTURE on management and leading styles,working and thinking styles,learning and teaching styles

Seminar: The training of cross-cultural competence and skills

Lecturer: Prof. Dr. Beneke

Students: Anke Boettcher, Kathrin Pinker


  • Introduction

  • Attitudes towards culture

  • National culture

  • Corporate culture

  • Different business areas

  • Conclusion

The impact of culture 11/20/01


technologyleadership

negotiationcreativity

feedback

timerewards

labels

science

machines hierarchies

The impact of culture 11/20/01


Attitudes towards culture

  • Parochialism –“our way is the only way”

  • Cultural Blindness - People do not recognize cultural differences in order to be just and to treat everybody equally.

  • Ethocentrism – “our way is the best way”

  • Synergy – Cultural diversity is recognized and can lead to both advantages and disadvantages.

The impact of culture 11/20/01


Synergy

  • Cultural diversity  key ressource

  • Managing the impact of diversity rather than ignoring the diversity

  • Result is more than the sum of the single contributions

  • Advantages: more flexible, creative and open to new ideas

The impact of culture 11/20/01


Synergy

Culturally synergistic Problem Solving

  • Recognition of the problem

  • Analysis from different perspectives

  • Solution appropriate for all cultures

The impact of culture 11/20/01


  • Introduction

  • Attitudes towards culture

  • National culture

  • Corporate culture

  • Different business areas

  • Conclusion

The impact of culture 11/20/01


First example:Management by objectives(employer and employee decide together on an objective, which the employee has to achieve within a certain time. After that period of time the result is evaluated.)

Crucial dimensions are:

  • Power distance

  • Individualism

  • Relation to nature

The impact of culture 11/20/01


Second example: Feedback

Crucial dimensions:

  • Individualism (losing face)

  • Relation to nature

  • Communication style

The impact of culture 11/20/01


  • Introduction

  • Attitudes towards culture

  • National culture

  • Corporate culture

    • Family culture

    • Eiffel Tower culture

    • Guided Missile culture

    • Incubator culture

  • Different business areas

  • Conclusion

  • The impact of culture 11/20/01


    The Family Culture

    • Person-oriented

    • Hierarchical: father-children relationship

    • Ascribed status

    • Culture clusters: Greece, Italy, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Spain, other nations which industrialized late and smaller companies

    The impact of culture 11/20/01


    The Eiffel Tower Culture

    • Hierarchies

    • Ascribed status to a role and not to a person

    • Task-oriented

    • Personal relationships are not desired

    • Culture clusters: Austria and Germany

    The impact of culture 11/20/01


    The Guided Missile Culture

    • Egalitarian

    • Task-oriented

    • Status is achieved

    • Individualistic

    • Culture clusters: USA, Norway, Ireland

    The impact of culture 11/20/01


    The Incubator Culture

    • Person-oriented

    • Egalitarian

    • Minimal hierarchies and structure

    • Creative and spontaneous

    • Leadership is achieved

    • Culture Clusters: Sweden,USA (Silicon Valley), UK (Silicon Glen) and smaller companies

    The impact of culture 11/20/01


    • Introduction

    • Attitudes towards culture

    • National culture

    • Corporate culture

    • Different business areas

      • Leadership

      • Motivation

      • Decision making

      • Example Japan

  • Conclusion

  • The impact of culture 11/20/01


    Leadership

    McGregor (1957)

    • Theory X

      • people are basically lazy, dislike work

      • tight control system

    • Theory Y

      • people are trustworthy, enjoy work

      • are given autonomy and responsibility

    The impact of culture 11/20/01


    Leadership

    William Ouchi (1982)

    • Theory Z

      • based on Japanese management

      • lifetime employment, concern for the total person

      • close and trusting relationships to improve productivity

    The impact of culture 11/20/01


    Motivation

    Abraham Maslow (1954) – Hierarchy of needs

    • Physiological, safety, social, esteem and self-actualization needs

    The impact of culture 11/20/01


    Motivation

    David McClelland (1961) – Achievement Theory

    • Achievement, power and affiliation

      Victor Vroom (1964) – Expectancy Theory

    • People estimate their ability to perform a task and the probable type of reward

    The impact of culture 11/20/01


    Motivation Theories

    • Abraham Maslow (1954) – Hierarchy of needs

      • Physiological, safety, social, esteem and self-actualization needs

    • David McClelland (1961) – Achievement Theory

      • Achievement, power and affiliation

    • Victor Vroom (1964) – Expectancy Theory

      • People estimate their ability to perform a task and the probable type of reward

    The impact of culture 11/20/01


    Decision making

    • Problem recognition

    • Information research

    • Construction of alternatives

    • Choice

    • Implementation

    The impact of culture 11/20/01


    Product-design for Japan

    • Prefer quality and are willing to pay premium prices

    • Different taste: less sugar and salt

    • Smaller servings

    • Different body shape

    The impact of culture 11/20/01


    Japanese television advertising

    • Length: 15 seconds or less

    • Mood advertising

      - non-verbally or with few words

      - emotion, humour, shock

      - good first impression

    The impact of culture 11/20/01


    Conclusions

    • Culture has a very important impact onbusiness, but not everything can be explained by it

    • Other influences: individual character, situation, legal system etc.

    The impact of culture 11/20/01


    Literature

    • Adler, Nancy (1991), International Dimensions of Organizational Behaviour, 2nd ed., Belmont: Wadsworth

    • Henderson, George/Spigner-Littles, Dorscine (1996), A practitioner‘s guide to understanding indigenous and foreign cultures, 2nd ed., Springfield: Thomas Books

    • Trompenaars, Fons (1998), Riding the ways of cultures, 2nd ed., New York et al: McGraw-Hill

    • March, Robert (1990), Honoring the customer. Marketing and selling to the Japanese, New York et al: Wiley and Sons

    • Beneke, Jürgen (2000),Orientation Matrix, University of Hildesheim

    The impact of culture 11/20/01


    Literature

    • Hofstede, Geert (1997), Cultures and Organizations, New York et al.: McGraw-Hill

    • Knapp, Karlfried et al. (eds.)(1999), Meeting the Intercultural Challenge, Sternenfels: Verlag Wissenschaft und Praxis

    The impact of culture 11/20/01


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