To Kill A Mockingbird by Harper Lee. No, it is not a “how to” book. How is the South different than the rest of the country?. Language Food Customs Religion History Climate Race Relations. The Author. Background info on Harper Lee: Born in 1926. Raised in Monroeville, AL.
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How is the South different than the rest of the country?
Background info on Harper Lee:
Born in 1926.
Raised in Monroeville, AL.
Her father was a lawyer.
His name was Francis Finch.
Lee and Capote
Capote and Lee:
Grew up with Truman Capote.
Based character Dill on Capote.
Capote dedicated his most famous book, In Cold Blood to Harper Lee.
Lee Later in life:
The novel won Pulitzer Prize in 1961
Awarded honorary degrees.
Only published essays following TKAM.
Currently splits her time between New York City and Monroeville.
Where did she get the idea?
Where did Harper Lee get the idea for her novel?
A case in Scottsboro, AL
2 white women accused an African American man of raping them.
Only received lawyer the day of the trial.
Scottsboro Case Cont…
No physical evidence of a rape.
Medical testimony said no rape.
All white jury still convicted them.
Setting: In Maycomb, AL
During the Great Depression
Novel is set during the time of complete segregation.
The poor white trash
The African Americans
African American Nannies:
Took care of children
Handled most of the discipline.
Southern Ladies: look pretty,
Participate in ladies groups,
Supervise the running of the household.
Small Towns: everyone knows you,
church is the center of the social scene,
not much entertainment,
everybody knows everybody’s business,
You are judged by your family.
Sub Plot: A small plot within a novel/play that helps to support or build the main plot.
Main plot: The trial of Tom Robinson
Sub Plot: Mrs. Dubose, the fire, the kids and Boo, etc…
Jean Louise “Scout” Finch: six years old, tomboy
Jeremy Atticus “Jem” Finch: 10 years old
Atticus Finch: Dad, widower, Lawyer
Dill: Friend who visit in the summer
Arthur “Boo” Radley: Scary guy who lives next door
Character Development Paper: How does Jem/Scout mature throughout the novel?
Body1: immature beginning of the book
Body 2: beginning to mature-middle
Body 3: mature-end
POV: First Person-Scout tells the story
Jem: Ten years old at the start of the novel
Scout: Six years old at the start of the novel
Atticus: Lawyer, widower, nearly fifty
Main Characters cont…:
Calpurnia: The children’s nanny, African American, worked for the family for years
Dill: Staying w/ his Aunt Stephanie for the summer, single parent home
Main characters cont…
Boo Radley (according to Jem):
Seven feet tall
Eats raw squirrels and cats
Is a peeping Tom
Boo Radley, the real story:
Got in w/ the wrong crowd
Got arrested for being wild
Family would not send him to the reform school
Boo’s story cont…
Put in the courthouse basement
Almost died from the mildew
Went and was home-never seen again
Stabbed his father in the leg w/ scissors
Dill gets the idea of trying to get Boo to come out
To prove his bravery, Jem runs up and slaps the house—not very mature!
1st grade: filled with kids of all ages,
Town kids go straight through school.
Farming kids keep working at home and are never able to advance
It is Scout’s and Miss Caroline’s first day of school
Miss Caroline’s Mistakes:
Was mad at Scout for being able to read and write.
Points out student w/ no lunch,
Pat with ruler
Sticks children in corner
She Doesn’t understand her kids:
most of them are farm kids
they just don’t get the cat story
the Cunningham's don’t take charity
Scout takes her frustration out on Walter Cunningham
Jem invites him over for supper
Scout, again, gets in trouble because of her big mouth
Miss Caroline does not understand Burris!
Mother is dead
Dad is a drunk
Kids are filthy
They live in the dump
The kids don’t go to school
The town looks the other way
Who is leaving things in the knothole? Why?
Jem gets Scout back for making fun of him (mature?)
What does Scout hear in the house?
Playing Boo Radley in the front yard (mature?).
Treats the kids with respect
Loves her garden
Rents a room to Mr. Avery
Lives across the street from the Finches
Scout is having problems with her fiancé. How does she try to solve them? (mature?)
Miss Maudie explains a bit more about the Radley’s
Atticus catches the kids playing “Boo Radley”
Jem’s response was very mature!
What do the kids wait to see Mr. Avery do?
The kids decide to look in Boo’s window
Mr. Nathan fires a gun at the kids
Jem gets stuck in the fence
Dill is able to think on his feet
Jem goes back at night to get his pants
More things found in the tree
The kids decide to write a thank you note
What happened the night Jem went back to get his pants?
Mr. Nathan fills up the knothole
Why is Jem so upset?
Jem builds a snowman. What does show about Jem?
What is an absolute morphodite?
Miss Maudie’s house catches fire
What does Atticus think to save?
Scout gets a blanket from who?
Why doesn’t Jem want to return it?
How does this show maturity?
Why is the town so mad at Atticus?
Scout is told to stop fighting and she has some success
Uncle Jack comes for Christmas
Scout is still trying to get out of going to school (mature?)
What is the rule about the air rifles?
Atticus’ older sister
Believes Scout should behave like a “proper lady”
Not a “kid“ person
She is a cold person
Married to Aunt Alexandra
“Buys cotton” (does nothing)
Has spoken to Scout once in her whole life
Aunt Alexandra’s grandson
Francis calls Atticus a hateful name
Scout responds by calling Francis a whorelady and beating him up
Uncle Jack sides with Francis until he hears the whole story.
Uncle Jack and Atticus have a talk at the end of the chapter:
Why does Atticus want Scout to hear the whole thing?
What is in store for the kids?
The kids think Atticus is just too old
There is a mad dog
What do the kids learn about Atticus?
Why doesn’t Jem want tell everyone?
How does this show maturity?
Supposedly has a confederate pistol in her lap
Hates Atticus for defending Tom Robinson
Jem Snaps. What does he do?
How does he have to make amends?
Atticus tells Jem that Mrs. Dubose teaches an important lesson: The meaning of courage.
“I wanted you to see something about her-I wanted you to see what real courage is, instead of getting the idea that courage is a man with a gun in his hand.”
“It’s when you know you’re licked before you begin, but you begin anyway and you see it through no matter what. You rarely win, but sometimes you do. Mrs. Dubose won, all ninety eight pounds of her” (Lee 112)
Calpurnia’s Church: Scout learns:
Calpurnia has another life,
Most African Americans in Maycomb can’t read.
Church is strong and caring,
No white people will hire Helen Robinson,
Atticus is well respected w/in the African American community
Aunt Alexandra’s definition of a proper Lady and Gentleman:
Come from a land owning family,
Hire people to work your land,
Own land on the river
Have good manners,
It’s about how you look not who you are
What do you think Atticus’ definition would be?
Why does Atticus tell Scout that it is not time to worry yet?
How has Jem separated himself from the younger kids?
What is under Scout’s bed?
Why doesn’t Boo run away?
Atticus as a parent:
Gives his children attention.
Makes them feel needed and important.
Violent tradition of lynching African Amer. Without a trial.
Who is in the mob?
Why does a mob operate differently from individuals?
How does Scout stop them?
Is Jem mature in this chapter?
Goes to protect his father
Refuses to leave when told to
Why does Atticus muss Jem’s hair at the end of the chapter?
Maycomb county values conformity: be like everyone else, follow the social norms.
His white fiancé killed herself
Lives with African Americans
Drinks out of a paper sack
Has “mixed children”
Why does Jem think the Raymond kids are sad?
Where do the Jem, Scout and Dill sit to watch the trial?
What does this tell us about them and Atticus?
Important Testimony from Heck Tate (the sheriff)
No doctor was called
Mayella was beaten on the right side of her face
She had hand marks all the way around her neck
There were no other witnesses besides Mayella, her father and Tom
He starts by insulting his dead wife.
He refers to his daughter as a farm animal.
He is disrespectful to the judge and to Atticus
Who plants the flowers at the Ewell House? Who does this remind you of?
Why did Atticus have Bob sign his name?
Why does Bob get so mad?
Tom raped her.
Asked Tom to fix door
Tom beat her with both hands
Dad said Tom ran out door
Claims Tom has been over 1 or 2 times
What Atticus shows us about Mayella
She doesn’t even know what a friend is
She doesn’t even understand how a child could love her parent
Her father beats her
No one has ever addressed and “Miss”
Only two of the family members can read
Mayella refuses to change her story
Why does she yell at the end?
What we know about Tom:
He is a family man
He is a religious man
His left hand does not work
He had helped Mayella before
Mayella kissed him
Tom said nothing was wrong with the door
Tom can only use his right hand
Said he jumped out the window
Says he helps Mayella often
Tom’s story cont…
The kids went to get ice cream-Mayella saved the money
Mayella wanted to kiss a man because what her father does to her doesn’t count
Who do you believe?
Why would Mayella lie?
Why does Dill become so upset?
Dolphus Raymond offers him a drink
Dolphus really drinks Coca Cola, not alcohol.
Why does Dolphus pretend?
What mistake does Tom make?
Atticus’ final statement forces the town to look at itself
Calpurnia comes to court
The kids are in trouble
Why does Atticus let them go back?
Jem believes Atticus will win
The jury finds Tom guilty
Why do all the African Americans Stand when Atticus passes?
Jem is crushed by the verdict
He learns that life isn’t fair
How does the African American Community thank Atticus?
What did Bob Ewell do to Atticus?
How does Atticus respond to Bob Ewell’s action?
Miss Maudie tries to comfort Jem—he gets a piece of the big cake
Jem tries to understand why the jury did what it did.
Who was the holdout on the jury?
Why can’t Scout invite Walter Cunningham over?
Why does Jem think Boo stays inside?
Aunt Alexandra has a missionary tea:
Mrs. Merriweather makes rude comments about Atticus
Miss Maudie puts her in her place
Scout joins the party
It is ironic that the woman want to help Africans in Africa but are so cruel to African Americans in their own town.
Tom Robinson is dead—shot 17 times
Atticus asks Cal to go with him to tell Helen
Scout gains new respect for Aunt Alexandra
Why doesn’t Jem let Scout kill the roly poly?
How does Dill describe Helen when she learned of Tom’s death?
What is Bob Ewell’s reaction?
Scout feels remorse for how they treated Boo (mature)
It is ironic that Mrs. Gates hates Hitler for how he treats the Jews but treats the African Americans in her own town terribly.
What is Jem so upset about?
What is Jem trying to forget?
Because of the incident with Miss Tutti and Miss Frutti, there will be a pageant!
Mrs. Merriweather is in charge (yuk!)
What happened at Judge Taylor’s house?
What does that say about Bob Ewell?
What did Bob say about the loss of his job?
What does Bob do to Helen Robinson?
What part does Scout play?
How was her costume constructed?
Who is taking her to the pageant?
Why does Lee end the chapter the way she does?
Jem and Scout take a short cut to get to school
Cecil Jacobs scares them
Poor Scout misses her cue during the pageant
They wait until everyone is gone to leave.
Scout is still wearing her costume
They are attacked
Who attacked them?
Who saved them?
What is Jem’s injury?
How was Bob killed?
Who do we meet for the first time?
What saved Scout’s life?
What outfit does Aunt Alexandra give Scout to wear?
Scout treats Boo like a proper lady should treat a visitor in her home
Who killed Bob Ewell?
Why does Heck Tate say Bob fell on his knife?
Why would it be like killing a mockingbird to tell the town what happened?
What does Scout do when it is time for Boo to go home?
What is her mature realization?
How is the lesson of The Grey Ghost connected to the theme of the novel?
Why is the last image of the novel so powerful?
Tom Robinson is the mockingbird. All he does is help others and create “beautiful music”
Then he was killed which makes it a sin.
The roly-poly = mockingbird also.
Boo represents the mockingbird. He has done no wrong and saves the kids from Bob Ewell.
The journey Scout and Jem took to school that night
The journey from innocence to experience
In Harper Lee’s novel TKAM, she illustrates it is a sin to destroy those who seek only to do good in the world
… it is a painful and difficult process growing up in this world.
…we live in a world which is often unjust.
Immaturity, we’ve all experienced it.
When did you start maturing?
What in the Same Hill are you doing?
Transition: Scout struggles in her effort to grow up.
Jem matures dramatically through one painful summer.
In her effort to get out of going to school by cussing, Scout shows her immaturity.
My experience mirrors Scout’s painful experience to mature.
Thesis: Scout is a character who painfully and humorously demonstrates that maturing is no easy task. Harper Lee illustrates this in To Kill A Mockingbird.
Transition: At the beginning of the novel, Scout is incredibly immature.
Conclusion: Trans: Scout/Jem has been on an incredible journey. Thesis: In an unjust and unfair world, growing up is never an easy process. Clincher: With her new found maturity, the dinner table will clearly be a safer and more appropriate place to be.
Framing: Connecting the hook and the clincher together.