Learning theories
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Learning Theories. Norma Longoria. Hermann Ebbinghaus. Life. 1850 – Born: Barmen, Germany 1873 – Doctorate from University of Bonn at 23 1879 – Began memory studies 1885 – Forgetting & learning curve established 1894 – Study on decline of children’s mental ability during the school day

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Learning Theories

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Learning theories

Learning Theories

Norma Longoria


Hermann ebbinghaus

Hermann Ebbinghaus


Learning theories

Life

  • 1850 – Born: Barmen, Germany

  • 1873 – Doctorate from University of Bonn at 23

  • 1879 – Began memory studies

  • 1885 – Forgetting & learning curve established

  • 1894 – Study on decline of children’s mental ability during the school day

  • 1908 – Left University of Halle

  • 1909 – Died: Breslau, Germany – pneumonia


Forgetting curve testing

Forgetting Curve : Testing

  • Studied his own memories

  • Learned “nonsense syllables”

  • Consonants-Vowel-Consonants: KOX, JAF, TIH

  • The grouping would have no prior meaning like TIN or FOX


Forgetting curve results

Forgetting Curve : Results

  • Memory significantly drops off within the first 20 minutes

  • After one day, the “forgetting” levels off

  • Even though it may seem as we have forgotten something “forever” it is the retrieval that is the error

  • Memory stored as long term is more stable


Forgetting in today s teachings

Forgetting in Today’s Teachings

  • Ebbinghaus deduced how quickly our memory fades without reinforcement.

  • Repetition is the solution!

  • Flash cards and multiple days of enforcing new ideas are constantly used today.

  • Giving presentations over reviewed material reinforces material.

  • Testing someone over the same material is useful and impactful for trainings.


Edward thorndike

Edward Thorndike


Learning theories

Life

  • 1874 – Born: Williamsburg, Massachusetts

  • 1898 – Ph.D. from Columbia University

  • 1932 – 2nd law was not entirely valid in all cases.

  • 1901– learning in one area does not facilitate learning in other areas

  • 1930s – Puzzle Box

  • 1949 – Died: Montrose, New York


Law of effect

Law of Effect

  • Behavioral responses that were most closely followed by a satisfying result were mostly likely to become established patterns and to occur again in response to the same stimulus.

  • Modified in 1932

    • rewards for appropriate behavior always substantially strengthened associations.


Law of exercise

Law of Exercise

  • Other things being equal, the repeated occurrence of any act makes that behavior easier to perform and is less vulnerable or subject to error.

  • “Practice makes perfect”

  • Doesn’t not take in the importance of “incentive”


Puzzle box

Puzzle Box

  • Animal locked in a wood slated box

  • Animal can see food through bars but could not get to it

  • Could only obtain it until some mechanism was manipulated.

  • Animal would have to push a lever to open the box.


Effectiveness in adult training

Effectiveness in Adult Training

  • Cognitive

    • Adults have the ability to remember more than children.

    • Using repetition to drive home an idea will be more effective for an adult than a child

  • Behavioral

    • “Practice makes perfect”

    • Being rewarded for appropriate behavior always substantially strengthens associations


Sources

Sources

  • Cherry, K. (2014, January 1). Forgetting: When Memory Fails. Retrieved October 8, 2014, from http://psychology.about.com/od/cognitivepsychology/p/forgetting.htm

  • Pacchioli, D. (2005, February 14). Probing Question: Do children have better memories than adults do? Retrieved October 12, 2014, from http://news.psu.edu/story/141275/2005/02/14/research/probing-question-do-children-have-better-memories-adults-do


Continued

Continued…

  • Edward L. Thorndike. (2014). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved fromhttp://school.eb.com.catalog.stisd.net:3048/levels/high/article/72241#9072241.toc

  • Exercise, law of. (2006). In Jon E. Roeckelein (Ed.), Elsevier's dictionary of psychological theories. Retrieved from https://catalog.stisd.net:2148/login?qurl=http%3A%2F%2Fsearch.credoreference.com.catalog.stisd.net%3A3048%2Fcontent%2Fentry%2Festpsyctheory%2Fexercise_law_of%2F0


Continued1

Continued…

  • Thorndike puzzle box. (2009). In The Penguin dictionary of psychology. Retrieved from https://catalog.stisd.net:2148/login?qurl=http%3A%2F%2Fsearch.credoreference.com.catalog.stisd.net%3A3048%2Fcontent%2Fentry%2Fpenguinpsyc%2Fthorndike_puzzle_box%2F0


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