Ch 10 the kingdom of kush
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Ch 10 The Kingdom of Kush. Introduction The Egyptianization of Kush Kush Conquers Egypt The Kush Capital of Meroe Kush Returns to Its African Roots Summary. Introduction. 2000 BCE - 350 CE Relationship between Egypt and Kush Some pictures show Kushites bearing gifts

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Ch 10 The Kingdom of Kush

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Ch 10 The Kingdom of Kush

  • Introduction

  • The Egyptianization of Kush

  • Kush Conquers Egypt

  • The Kush Capital of Meroe

  • Kush Returns to Its African Roots

  • Summary


Introduction

  • 2000 BCE - 350 CE

  • Relationship between Egypt and Kush

    • Some pictures show Kushites bearing gifts

    • Some pictures show Kushites armed with bows and arrows


The Egyptianization of Kush

  • Greatest ancient civilization in Africa, next to Egypt

  • Grew up around Nile River

  • Known for rich gold mines

  • Also called Nubia

  • nub - Egyptian word for gold

  • Center of Trade

    • Linked central and southern Africa to Egypt

    • Egyptians traded grain beer and linen

    • Kush traded gold, ivory, leather, and timber

    • Slaves were also bought


The Egyptianization of Kush

  • Egypt's Control

    • During New Kingdom, 1600 - 1100 BCE, Egypt conquered Kush

    • Kush paid tribute to Egypt in the form of gifts

    • Kushites gave gold, cattle, ivory ebony, ostrich feathers, and slaves

    • Kush society became "Egyptianized"

      • Kushites spoke and wrote in Egyptian

      • Worshiped Egyptian gods and wore Egyptian-style clothing

      • Kush's archers hired to fight in Egypt's army

      • Princes from Kush's royal families were educated in Egypt

      • Continued to follow Egyptian traditions after regaining independence

      • 1100 BCE New Kingdom collapsed and Kush regained its independence. About 900 BCE a new line of Kush kings was established.


Kush Conquers Egypt

  • Opportunity

    • Egypt fell into political chaos when New Kingdom collapsed

    • 10 Egyptian kingdoms fought each other for power

  • Conquest

    • Mid-700's BCE Kush invaded Egypt

    • Egypt surrendered to Kush's King Piye around 730 BCE

  • Result

    • Piye declared himself pharaoh

      • Assumed title of "Uniter of the Two Lands"

      • Established the 25th dynasty in Egypt

      • Wanted to revive Egypt's past glory

        • Built new temples and pyramids

          • Built temple at Jebel Barkal

            • modeled after the temple of Ramses II at Abu Simbel

      • Eventually, threatened by the expanding Assyrian Empire

        • 671 BCE Assyrian King invaded Egypt

        • Assyrians used iron weapons to drive Kushites out of Egypt

        • By 650's BCE the last of the Kushite pharaohs returned to Kush

    • Kingdom of Kush now extended 1500 miles from Meroe to the Meiterranean


The Kush Capital of Meroe

  • Napata Destroyed

    • 590 BCE Egypt invaded Kush and destroyed its capital

  • Meroe becomes new capital

    • Location

      • 300 miles south of Napata

      • Important center of trade

      • Trade developed between African kingdoms, Arabia, Rome, India, and maybe China

      • Connected overland routes with Nile and Red Sea

    • Center of Kushite civilization

      • Lasted almost 1,000 years

      • Thrived as a center of industry as well as culture

      • known for producing iron

        • Learned about iron from their defeat by the Assyrians

        • Meroe had everything needed to make iron

          • iron deposits, forest for charcoal

          • Made weapons like spears arrows, and swords

          • Created tools for farming like axes and hoes


Kush Returns to Its African Roots

  • Art and Architecture

    • Artisans made beautiful pottery, cloth, and gold and silver jewelry

    • Rulers built grand palaces, temples, and pyramids

  • Religion

    • worshiped an African lion-god

  • Language

    • wrote and spoke a native language called Meroitic

  • Leadership

    • Revived the African practice of female leadership

      • Kandakes, queen mothers, ruled Meroe

      • Co-ruled with sons or husbands

      • Considered goddesses and very powerful

    • Queen Amanirenas

      • Defended Kush agains Romans in 24 BCE

      • Rome signed a peace treaty with Kush

  • Fall

    • 350 CE Kush fell to invaders from Ethiopia


Summary

  • Kush and Egypt had close ties

  • Each country invaded and conquered the other

  • Kushite pharoahs ruled Egypt for nearly a century

  • Upon withdrawing from Egypt Kush returned to its African roots


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