Introduction to a p
Download
1 / 37

Introduction to A&P - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 65 Views
  • Uploaded on

Introduction to A&P . Fall 2012. Vocab development. Paries -wall Pathos- disease Peri - around Pronus - inclined forward Stupinus - lying on the back Venter- belly or abdomen. Bios- life Cardium - heart Dorsum- back Homeo - unchanging -logy- study of

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Introduction to A&P ' - tannar


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Vocab development
Vocab development

  • Paries-wall

  • Pathos- disease

  • Peri- around

  • Pronus- inclined forward

  • Stupinus- lying on the back

  • Venter- belly or abdomen

  • Bios- life

  • Cardium- heart

  • Dorsum- back

  • Homeo- unchanging

  • -logy- study of

  • Median- situated in the middle


Common functions of all living things
Common functions of all living things…

  • responsiveness

    • irritability- organisms respond to environmental changes immediately

    • adaptability- long term adjustments

  • growth

  • reproduction

  • movement

    • internal

    • external

  • metabolism

    • provides energy required for the four things listed above

    • refers to all of the chemical operations under way in the body


  • Anatomy
    Anatomy

    • Anatomy- study of internal and external structure and the physical relationships between body parts

    • divided into:

      • gross anatomy

      • microscopic anatomy


    Gross anatomy macroscopic
    Gross anatomy (macroscopic)

    • - visible with the unaided eye

      • surface anatomy- study of general form & superficial markings

      • regional anatomy- all of the superficial & internal features in a specific region of the body (head, neck, torso)

      • systemic anatomy- structure of major organ systems


    Microscopic anatomy
    Microscopic anatomy

    • cannot be seen without magnification

    • specialties

      • cytology- analyzes the internal structure of individual cells

      • histology- examination of tissues

        • tissues- groups of specialized cells that work together to perform a specific function

          • organs- tissues combined to perform specific function(s)


    Physiology
    Physiology

    • physiology- study of the function of anatomical structures

      • human physiology

        • cell physiology- study of the functions of living cells

        • special physiology- physiology of specific organs

        • systemic physiology- physiology of all aspects of the function of specific organ systems

        • pathological physiology (pathology)- study of the effect of diseases on organ or system functions

    • All physiological functions are performed by anatomical structures.


    Levels of organization
    Levels of Organization

    • 6 levels of organization within the human body

      • Chemical

        • Atoms- smallest stable unit of matter

        • Atoms combine to form molecules

      • Cellular

        • Different molecules can interact to form a larger structures

      • Tissue

        • Similar cells working together to perform a specific function

      • Organ

        • Two or more tissues working together to perform specific functions

      • Organ system

        • Organs interact

      • Organism

        • All of the organ systems of the body work together


    Organ systems
    Organ systems

    • The human body consists of 11 organ systems

      • Integumentary

      • Skeletal

      • Muscular

      • Nervous

      • Endocrine

      • Cardiovascular

      • Lymphoid

      • Respiratory

      • Digestive

      • Urinary

      • Reproductive


    Integumentary system
    Integumentary system

    • Cutaneous membrane

      • Epidermis

      • Dermis

  • Hair follicles

    • Hairs

    • Sebaceous glands

  • Sweat glands

  • Nails

  • Sensory receptors

  • Subcutaneous layer


  • Skeletal system
    Skeletal System

    • Bones, cartilages and joints

    • Axial skeleton

      • Skull, vertebrae, ribs, sternum, sacrum, cartilages, & ligaments

  • Appendicular skeleton

    • Limbs & supporting bones & ligaments

  • Bone marrow


  • Muscular system
    Muscular system

    • Skeletal muscles (700)

      • Axial muscles

      • Appendicular muscles

  • Tendons


  • Nervous system
    Nervous system

    • Central nervous system

      • Brain

      • Spinal cord

  • Peripheral nervous system


  • Endocrine system
    Endocrine system

    • Adrenal glands

    • Kidneys

    • Pancreas

    • Gonads

      • Testes

      • Ovaries

    • Pineal gland

    • Pituitary gland

    • Thyroid gland

    • Parathyroid gland

    • Thymus


    Cardiovascular system
    Cardiovascular system

    • Heart

    • Blood vessels

      • Arteries

      • Capillaries

      • Veins

  • Blood


  • Lymphoid system
    Lymphoid system

    • Lymphatic vessels

    • Lymph nodes

    • Spleen

    • Thymus


    Respiratory system
    Respiratory system

    • Nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses

    • Pharynx

    • Larynx

    • Trachea

    • Bronchi

    • Lungs

      • alveoli


    Digestive system
    Digestive system

    • Salivary glands

    • Pharynx

    • Esophogus

    • Stomach

    • Small intestine

    • Liver

    • Gallbladder

    • Pancreas

    • Large intestine


    Urinary system
    Urinary system

    • Kidneys

    • Ureters

    • Urinary bladder

    • Urethra


    Male reproductive system
    Male reproductive system

    • Testes

    • Accessory organs

      • Epididymis

      • Ductus deferens

      • Seminal glands

      • Prostate gland

      • Urethra

  • External genitalia

    • Penis

    • Scrotum


  • Female reproductive system
    Female reproductive system

    • Ovaries

    • Uterine tubes

    • Uterus

    • Vagina

    • External genitalia

      • Clitoris

      • Labia

  • Mammary glands


  • Homeostasis
    Homeostasis

    • Homeostasis is the tendency toward internal balance.

    • All cells in the body are in contact with blood or some other body fluid, and any change in the composition of the fluid will affect them.

    • Homeostatic regulation- the adjustments in physiological systems that preserve homeostasis


    Homeostatic regulation
    Homeostatic regulation

    • Homeostatic regulation usually involves;

      • A receptor that is sensitive to a particular environmental change (stimulus)

      • A control center (integration center) that receives and processes information from the receptor

      • An effector that responds to the commands of the control center

        • Its activity opposes or reinforces that stimulus

  • When homeostatic regulation fails, organ systems begin to malfunction


  • Negative positive feedback
    Negative & positive feedback

    • Negative feedback opposes variation to normal

    • Positive feedback exaggerates variation to normal


    Negative feedback
    Negative Feedback

    • Regardless of whether the stimulus rises or falls at the receptor a variation outside normal limits triggers an automatic response that corrects the situation

    • Most homeostatic mechanisms in the body involve negative feedback


    Positive feedback
    Positive feedback

    • The initial stimulus produces a response that reinforces that stimulus

    • Positive feedback loops are involved in the regulation of a potentially dangerous or stressful process that has to be completed quickly

      • Ex: hypothermia

      • Ex: severe cut


    Anatomical terms
    Anatomical terms

    • Anatomical terms describe:

      • Body regions

      • Anatomical positions & directions

      • Body sections


    Anatomical landmarks
    Anatomical landmarks

    • Anatomical position- hands at the sides with palms facing forward & feet together

      • Supine- lying down face up in anatomical position

      • Prone- lying down face down in anatomical position


    Anatomical regions
    Anatomical regions

    • 4 abdominopelvic quadrants

      • Right upper (RUQ)

      • Right lower (RLQ)

      • Left upper (LUQ)

      • Left lower (LLQ)

      • ***these are formed by two perpendicular lines that intersect at the belly button


    Abdominopelvic regions
    Abdominopelvic regions

    • 9 abdominopelvic regions

      • Right hypochondriac

      • Epigastric (liver, stomach)

      • Left hypochondriac (spleen)

      • Right lumbar

      • Umbilical (large intestine, small intestine, gall bladder)

      • Left lumbar

      • Hypogastric (urinary bladder, appendix)

      • Right inguinal

      • Left inguinal


    Directional terms
    Directional terms

    • Anterior- front; before

    • Ventral- belly side

    • Posterior- back; behind

    • Dorsal- back

    • Cranial or cephalic- head

    • Superior- above; at a higher level

    • Caudal- tail

    • Inferior- below; at a lower level


    Directional terms cont
    Directional terms cont…

    • Medial- toward the body’s longitudinal axis

    • Lateral- away from the body’s longitudinal axis

    • Proximal- toward an attached base

    • Distal- away from an attached base

    • Superficial- at, near, or relatively close to the body surface

    • Deep- farther from the body surface


    Section planes transverse plane
    Section Planes: Transverse Plane

    • Lies at right angles to the long axis of the body

    • Divides the body into superior and inferior portions


    Sectional planes frontal plane
    Sectional Planes: Frontal Plane

    • Aka coronal plane

    • Runs along the long axis of the body

    • Extends laterally

    • Divides body into anterior and posterior positions


    Sagittal plane
    Sagittal plane

    • Runs along the long axis of the body

    • Extends anteriorly and posteriorly

    • Divides the body into left and right portions


    Body cavities
    Body cavities

    • Body cavities protect internal organs and allow them to change shape.

      • 2 essential functions

        • 1. protect delicate organs from accidental shocks and cushion them from the jolting that occurs when we walk, jump, or run

        • 2. permit significant changes in size and shape of internal organs


    Ventral body cavity
    Ventral body cavity

    • Contains the organs of the following systems;

      • Respiratory

      • Cardiovascular

      • Digestive

      • Urinary

      • Reproductive

  • Subdivided into:

    • Thoracic cavity

    • Abdominopelvic


  • ad