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Prevent, Teach, and Reinforce: Promoting Student Use of Expected Behaviors. 2014-2015 Regional Forum presented by: and the Regional Special Education Technical Assistance Support Center. From the NYS PBIS TAC & the RSE-TASC Details… 1. registration 2. flash drive 3. handouts

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Prevent, Teach, and Reinforce:

Promoting Student Use of Expected Behaviors

2014-2015 Regional Forum

presented by:

and the

Regional Special Education Technical Assistance Support Center

  • From the NYS PBIS TAC & the RSE-TASC

  • Details…

    1. registration

    2. flash drive

    3. handouts

    4. restrooms, breaks, lunch

    5. evaluations

PBIS Training Expectations

Resources - Flash drive


  • Learn how to utilize the supports embedded in Tiers Two and Three of the PBIS model

  • Understand how the behavior pathway unfolds and influences the environment

  • Understand how to utilize the behavior pathway to intervene and shape behavior

  • Learn how to prevent, teach, and reinforce functionally related replacement behaviors

Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

Tier 3: FBA process is initiated when previous interventions tried have been unsuccessful.

Tier 2: Small group strategies or low level targeted interventions should be tried and data collected.

Tier 1: Strong classroom management and school policy is the first line of defense for ALL students.



Supporting Social Competence &

Academic Achievement






Staff Behavior





Student Behavior

Thinking About Intervention Levels/Tiers

How can Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) support individuals who exhibitchallenging behavior?

  • Learn how to utilize Tier Two Interventions to meet the needs of students who are not responding to Tier 1 supports.

  • Learn how to utilize Tier Three Interventions to meet the needs of students who have not responded to the combination of Tier 1 and Tier 2 Supports.

    • Learn about the SCIENCE behind behavior

      • Setting Events, Antecedents, Consequences and Functions

    • Learn about techniques to help PREVENTsetting events and antecedents from triggering behaviors

    • Learn about how to TEACH functionally equivalent replacement behaviors

    • Learn how to respond to inappropriate behavior and REINFORCE the use of a replacement behavior

Data Based Individual Evaluation (DBI)

Secondary intervention program, delivered with greater intensity

Progress monitoring

Informal diagnostic assessment


Continued progress monitoring, with adaptations occurring whenever needed to ensure adequate progress

Check In/Check Out(CICO)

Small group intervention

Who is CICO for?

Students who continue to demonstrate problems after PBIS universal supports are in place

Students with 2-5 office discipline referrals

Need increased levels of structure, routine, and feedback

Demonstrate patterns of behavior that are functionally related to obtaining attention

Low levels of disruption

Talk out/Talk back



  • Systematic performance feedback

  • Daily organizational and behavioral support

  • High rates of positive adult attention

  • Positive communication link between home and school

  • Sets students up for success each morning and can be faded to develop student self-management.

Basics of CICO

Morning Check-In (Get Daily Progress Report DPR)

Regular Teacher feedback throughout the day

End of the day check-out

Tally and record points

Receive recognition

Data collection and progress monitoring

Take DPR home and return signed copy

Elementary Example of DPR

Tier Two Intervention

Weekly Progress Monitoring

Data Based Decisions

Morning Check-In

Program Update

Home Check-In


Afternoon Check-out

Check-in Check-out Cycle

Class Check out


Class Check in

  • Morning Check-in

  • Consistent location (same place, same time)

  • Begin with positive greeting

    • Hello JaQuan it is so nice to see you!

  • Ask probing questions

    • How was your night at home?

    • Did you get your homework done?

    • How are you feeling today?

  • Address any potential setting events

    • I can imagine last night was difficult. How can we plan to have a good day today? What can we do to make sure we are meeting expectations?

  • Prompt the student to get DPR

  • Reminder of expectations

    • Be Respectful

    • Be Safe

    • Be a Problem Solver

  • Throughout the day

  • Student carries DPR

  • All teachers greet and pre-corrects as antecedent strategies

    • Hello JaQuan, nice to have you in class today.

    • We want to make sure that you are following expectations in class, so lets review what we need to do today. Be Respectful, Be Safe, Be a Problem Solver

  • Establish criteria for prompts and points

    • If you raise your hand, use an appropriate tone of voice, and ask for help when needed, you will earn full points for being respectful.

    • If you follow directions, keep personal space, and take a break when needed, you will earn full points for being safe.

    • If you use a problem solving strategy (look at the board, read directions, ask a peer or teacher for help) when you have a problem, you will earn full points for being a problem solver.

  • Teacher provides feedback (positive, correct action, positive)and students earn points

    • JaQuan you did a great job of meeting the Be Respectful and Be Safe expectations.

    • JaQuan you struggled with being a problem solver when you did not have all the materials for the activity. How can you be a better problem solver tomorrow?

    • JaQuan, you should be proud of yourself for earning full points for the expectations of Be Respectful and Be Safe.

  • End of the day Check-Out

  • Consistent location (same time, same place)

  • Adult positive greeting

    • So nice to see you at the end of the day JaQuan!

  • Total points, calculate percentage and enter data

    • Your total points for the day are ___________

    • Your percentage for the day is ___________

  • Daily or weekly reinforcements for meeting goals

    • JaQuan you are working towards __________

  • Quick debrief with student

    • I see you meet expectations in English and Social Studies. What did you do to be successful there?

    • You had some difficulty in Math. What were some roadblocks to being successful there?

    • How can you improve your total points and percentage tomorrow?

  • Provide parent communication

    • Make sure to share and talk about your DPR with an adult at home and get the DPR signed.

  • Turn & Talk

    • In groups of three, take turns practicing the cycle of Check-in Check-Out based on the provided scenario.

    • Have one participant take on the role of the adult, one participant take on the role of the child, and the third participant will provide feedback on the interaction.

    • Rotate through the roles and stages of CICO

      • Morning Check-In

      • Throughout the Day Check-In

      • End of the Day Check- Out

    Sample Behavioral ProgressionWith Check In/Check Out

    Tier 2 ~ Small Group Interventions(approx. 2-10 students)

    Social Skills Groups

    Academic Intervention Groups

    Teach students specific skills that they should be using in place of the inappropriate behaviors. For example, how to use graphic organizers or a step sheet to support work completion

    • Provides specific social skills training/instruction, based on the student’s identified function of behavior

    • Can be used to teach replacement social behaviors identified from the school-wide matrix (desired behaviors)

    Who are these interventions for?

    Social Skills Group

    Academic Intervention Groups

    Students who consistently demonstrate inappropriate or escape/avoid behaviors when presented with a specific academic task

    Students who benefit from direct instruction on targeted academic skills to help remove the “academic antecedent”

    • Students who consistently demonstrate the inability to interact appropriately with peers or adults in academic and non academic setting

    • Students who would benefit from direct instruction on targeted skills

    Set up of Small Intervention Groups

    • Focus on one skill intervention at a time

      • Provide 3 or 4 adaptations of skill

    • 3 to 6 students

    • Min. 45 mins/Max. 60 mins

    • 2 or 3 x per week for 8 weeks

    • Booster sessions every 2 – 4 weeks





    Good Listener

    Corrective Feedback


    Social Skills and/or Academic Deficit?

    Acquisition Deficit

    Absence of knowledge for executing skill or failure to discriminate which skills are appropriate in specific situations (can’t do)

    Performance Deficit

    Skill is present in repertoire, but student fails to perform at acceptable levels (won’t do)

    Fluency Deficit

    Lack of exposure to sufficient or skilled models, insufficient rehearsal or low rates or inconsistent delivery of reinforcement of skilled performances

    • Peer relations

      • Complimenting others, offering help, inviting peers to play

    • Self-management skills

      • Controlling temper, following rules, compromising

    • Academic skills

      • Completing work independently, listening to teacher direction, producing acceptable quality work

    • Compliance skills

      • Following directions, following rules, using free time appropriately

    • Assertion skills

      • Initiating conversation, acknowledging compliments

    Turn & Talk

    Pick from one of the social skills

    Peer relations

    Self-management skills

    Academic skills

    Compliance skills

    Assertion skills

    • Within your groups, develop a “sample lesson plan” for a social skills group.

    • Develop the “tell, show, and do” components of the skill.

    Small Group Intervention Progression

    Tier Three Supports

    • Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP)

    • Wraparound

    • Student Targeted Aggression Replacement Training (START)

    • Rehabilitation, Empowerment, Natural Supports, Education, and Work (RENEW)

    • Special Education Services

      • Individualized Education Program

        We will be focusing on the behavior pathway and the development of a BIP because the other Tier Three Supports are multi-dimensional and beyond the scope of this training

    What is behavior?

    • An observable activity in a human that unfolds in a predictable sequence

    • Most behaviors are externally observable (can be seen)

      • Smiling

      • Hitting

      • Crying

      • Laughing

    • Behaviors that are observable can be clearly defined and measured (counted or timed)

    Behavioral Pathway

    Setting Event








    Hypothesis: When (setting event) occurs, and (the antecedent happens) the (problem behavior) because in order to (function).

    Behavioral Pathway

    3. Maintaining


    4. Setting Events

    2. Triggering


    1. Problem


    Infrequent events that affect value of main. conseq.

    Following events that maintain behaviors of concern

    Preceding events that trigger or occasion

    Set of related behaviors of concern


    Why the student engages in the behavior

    Hypothesis: When (setting event) occurs, and (the antecedent happens) the (problem behavior) because in order to (function).

    Setting Events

    “Could someone help me with these? I’m late for math class.”

    Setting EventsSetting events help explain why people respond differently at different times when presented with the same set of events or triggers.

    Challenges due to a disability

    Hunger (lack of food)



    Side Effects

    Wearing Off

    Traumatic event


    Winter Months

    Holiday Time

    Rainy/Gloomy Weather

    • Fatigue (lack of sleep)

    • Staffing pattern

    • Previous conflict

    • Transitions

      • Changes in routines

    • Time of day

      • Mornings/Afternoons

    • Day of Week

      • Mondays and Fridays

    • Feelings of inadequacy

    • Changes in other environments

      • Spending the night with one parent versus another


    Antecedents have a directly functional cause/effect (if this, then that) relationship to the occurrence of a targeted behavior

    WHERE and WHEN

    the behavior occurs.

    • Where= Routines where the problem behavior is most likely

    • When= Specific events within a routine that predict the problem behavior

    • Where (Routine), When (Antecedent)  Student does (Behavior)


    • During lunch, when told to shut up by a peer, Ben hits the student

    • During language arts, when asked to read aloud in class, Tracy gets up and tells jokes

    • During circle time, when praised Jessie starts crying

    Consequences or Response to Behavior

    Consequences or Response to Behavior

    • They are observable and measurable events in the environment that occur following behavior

    • Consequences are functionally related to behavior. The behavior is said to prompt environmental consequences (response or reaction).

    • Consequences may, in turn, sustain or strengthen that behavior (reinforce), or weaken or suppress that behavior (punish).

    Common Responses to Behavior

    Depending on the function of the student’s behavior, each of these responses can serve to either reinforce or suppress the behavior, therefore we must consider function carefully.

    • teacher attention (smiles, prompts, scolds)

    • peer attention

    • being ignored or left alone

    • being sent away

    • getting a toy, or a good grade

    • a satisfying level of physical activity







    Tangible or








    Function Based Thinking

    “The WHY of Behavior”

    Obtain/ Get :

    Peer attention (positive or negative)

    Adult attention (positive or negative)

    Desired activity

    Desired object/ items

    Sensory stimulation: auditory, tactile, etc.

    To Avoid/ Escape:

    Difficult Task

    Boring Task

    Easy Task

    Physical demand

    Non-preferred activity




    Sensory Stimulation

    Most Common Functions of Behavior

    Examples of Function in School

    • Escape/Avoid Aversives

      • I cry when work gets hard because someone will help me

      • I throw a book during math class because the teacher will remove me from class

      • I stand out of the way during PE because the other game participants will avoid throwing me the ball.

    • Obtain/Get Reinforcers

      • I yell because others look at me

      • I fight because others listen to me

      • I wander because people talk to me

      • I hit in order to get toys from other kids.

    Behavior Pathway Diagram Elementary Example (JaQuan)

    Setting Events











    Get/Obtain peer’s attention (peer yells at student)

    Sees peers playing with one another

    No attention from peers

    Slaps peer on the back

    Function: Get/Obtain Peer Attention

    Turn & Talk

    Read the following student scenarios and map the student’s behavior and determine the function of the student’s behavior

    Setting Events












    When Sequoia misses her 12:30 medication & teachers present multiple task demands, she makes negative self-statements & writes profane language on her assignments. Teaching staff typically send her to the office with a discipline referral for being disrespectful.

    Avoid difficult tasks

    What function?

    Setting event




    Sequoia makes

    negative self-

    statements &

    writes profane


    Teacher sends

    Sequoia to

    office for being


    Misses 12:30





    task demands

    Caesar has dyed his hair three colors & is teased several times by his friends before class. When he enters the class, his teacher stares at his hair. Caesar immediately says “what are you staring at?” His teacher immediately sends him to in-school detention.

    Escape adult &

    peer attention

    What function?

    Setting event




    Caesar is

    teased several

    times about his

    hair by his

    friends before


    His teacher

    stares at his

    hair in class

    Caesar asks

    his teacher

    what she’s

    staring at

    His teacher

    sends him to



    After developing a function based hypothesis....

    We can then begin to consider:

    • How to prevent behaviors from occurring

    • Teach replacement behaviors

    • Use the principles of reinforcement to change behavior

    Prevention-Setting Events & Antecedents

    What is OUT of your control in terms of classroom systems?

    What is IN your control in terms of classroom systems?

    Setting Events may be out of our control but we can try to lessen the impact of some common setting events

    Using Positive Interactions to Prevent or Lessen the Impact of Antecedents

    • Be explicit about directives

      • I need students to raise their hands and wait to be called on during group discussion.

    • Acknowledge students who are complying with directives

      • I like how Dylan got his materials out and is waiting quietly.

    • Provide a non-verbal visual or cue to indicate to a student that they need to modify their behavior

      • Tug of ear

      • Hand raised

    • Try to maintain at least a 4:1 ratio

      • For every corrective statement, make four positive statements

    Antecedent Prevention~ Can I add or modify?

    We must also consider the function of the student’s behavior when utilizing antecedent interventions

    Functionally Equivalent Replacement Behaviors (FERBs):

    • Should be as easily performed as the problem behavior

    • Should be taught and reinforced

      • Behavior skills must be taught as intentionally and systematically as academic skills are taught

    • May become unnecessary once environmental supports are in place OR the student has learned new skills OR becomes more proficient than the inappropriate behvior

    • Problem behaviors are irrelevantwhen

      • Child doesn’t need to escape anymore

      • Child has access to positive events more commonly

    • Problem behaviors are inefficientwhen

      • Alternative behavior is available

      • Alternative behavior is taught

    • Problem behaviors are ineffectivewhen

      • Problem behavior NO LONGER works- it does not get the child what they want to obtain or what they want to avoid.

    Teach Replacement Behaviors through Explicit Direct Instruction

    • Model how to demonstrate skill

    • Provide explicit instructions

    • Rehearse skill

    • Provide feedback

    • Practice in natural setting

    • Reinforce students for demonstrating the skill

    Asking for Assistance

    • Model how to demonstrate skill

      • Model how to raise one’s hand quietly

      • Demonstrate using examples and non-examples

        • Example – Hand raised in the air, eyes on the teacher, mouth closed, ears open

        • Non-example – Hand waving in the air, eyes wandering, shouting the person’s name

    • Provide explicit instructions for demonstrating skill

      • Raise hand high enough to be seen by others & hold hand still

      • Eyes directed towards the person, mouth closed, ears open

      • When acknowledged, ask in a calm tone of voice “Can you please help me?” or some variation of this question

      • Wait patiently (explain what patiently looks like) for a response

    Asking for Assistance Continued..

    • Rehearse social skill

      • Practice it through role play

    • Provide feedback on social skill

      • Let students know what they have done well first and then give points for improvement

    • Practice social skills in natural setting to promote generalization

      • Practice the raising the hand in the classroom

    • Reinforce students for demonstrating social skill

      • Provide verbal positive reinforcement when students raises their hands or approximates the behavior

    Turn & Talk

    • Pick a FERB

      • Ask for a break (escape/avoid)

      • Ask to work with a peer (get/obtain attention)

      • Use appropriate words to communicate about overwhelming elements (escape/avoid sensory)

      • Ask for an item (get/obtain tangible)

    • Plan an Explicit Direct Instruction Sequence for the FERB

      • Model how to demonstrate skill

      • Provide explicit instructions

      • Rehearse skill

      • Provide feedback

      • Practice in natural setting

      • Reinforce students for demonstrating the skill

    Response to Behavior

    • Pre-correct with explicit directives

    • Use prompts/cues to signal to the student to use the FERB

    • Ignore negative behaviors when possible (especially attention seeking behaviors)

    • Immediately recognize positive behaviors (especially approximations)

    • Praise others for appropriate behaviors to encourage other students to comply

    • Model positive thinking

      • “I am capable of completing this assignment if I use my strategies”

    Response to Behavior

    • Showcase students strengths

      • “Nina demonstrated problem solving skills when she used a strategy to help her solve the math problem”

    • Encourage students to engage in self-assessment regularly of their behavior

      • Use transition time as a check point

    • Use “wait time” after giving a request to avoid power struggle

    • Teach and model self-talk strategies

      • “I can solve this problem”

      • “I can use my replacement behavior”

    • Offer two choices of ways to perform work that will still achieve the objectives of the assignment

    ReinforcementBehavior acts on the environment Produces a consequenceConsequencestrengthensbehavior



    There is an occurrence of a behavior

    There is a REMOVAL of a stimulus (object, event, person) or decrease in intensity of the stimulus (Consequence)

    Results in strengthening behavior

    • There is an occurrence of a behavior

    • There is an ADDITION of a stimulus (object, event, person) or increase in intensity of the stimulus (Consequence)

    • Results in strengthening behavior



    Taking away (removal)

    A deadline

    An assignment

    A quiz/test

    A consequence


    Poor grades

    Removing an aversive stimulus

    Stopping one’s ridicule

    Stopping one’s teasing

    Stopping one’s yelling

    Stopping one’s crying

    Stopping one’s whining

    Stopping one’s staring

    Stopping one’s pouting

    Stopping laughing at someone

    • Giving (adding)

      • Praise

      • Stickers

      • Privileges

      • Attention

      • Tokens

      • Good grades

      • Free time

      • Time with preferred person

      • Extra credit

      • A prize

      • An award

      • Food

      • A smile

      • Positive feedback

    Positiveor Negative?

    • A teacher smiles at a student and praises him when he stays in his seat and pays attention in the classroom. As a result, the student is more likely to sit in his seat and pay attention.

      • Positive Reinforcement

    • A teacher passes out an in-class assignment and a student immediately states: “I’m not doing this” and throws the assignment on the floor.  The teacher immediately sends the learner to the principal’s office.  The next day, when the teacher hands out the assignment, the student states: “I’m not doing this” and throws the assignment on the floor. The teacher sends the student out again.

      • Negative Reinforcement

    • A teacher passes out an in-class assignment to a class and states: “Any student who finishes this now, won’t have homework tonight.” All of the students immediately begin working on the assignment.

      • Negative Reinforcement

    • A student is answering study guide questions. When she can’t figure out an answer to a question, she asks her teacher. Her teacher tells her the correct answer. As a result, she is more likely to ask her teacher for answers to questions she doesn’t know.

      • Positive Reinforcement

    Considerations when Using Positiveor Negative Reinforcement

    • Immediacy

      • How quickly the reinforcer follows the behavior

    • Contingency

      • How often the reinforcer follows the behavior

    • Magnitude

      • Intensity of reinforcer

    • Individual Differences

      • Not all stimuli are equally reinforcing to everyone

    Acquisition Reinforcement Schedule

    • Reinforcer (verbal or tangible) should be given or taken away immediately after the behavior is demonstrated or approximated

      • Student asks for help and the teacher gives help immediately.

      • Student asks for a break and the teacher takes away the demand immediately.

    • Every time the behavior is demonstrated or approximated the reinforcer should be given or taken away

      • Student asks peer for a turn. The teacher verbally praises the student every time the student asks appropriately for a turn.

      • Student asks for a choice in assignment. The teacher takes away the demand and provides an alternative way to complete the same assignment.

    • The reinforcer should be perceived to be of high value to the student

      • Student uses their FERB and earns extra free time with an adult every time they demonstrate the behavior (i.e. 1 minute for every demonstration of behavior).

      • Student uses their FERB and a part of a homework assignment is taken away (i.e. 1 problem is taken away for every demonstration of behavior).

    Putting all the pieces together…

    • Utilizing the behavior pathway to understand the function of the student’s behavior

    • Using the function of the student’s behavior to select a FERB

    • Use the FERB to develop a competing pathway

    • Use the competing pathways to develop a BIP

    Behavior Pathway Diagram Elementary Example ~ JaQuan

    Setting Events











    Sees peers playing with one another

    Peer yells at student

    Slaps peer on the back

    No attention from peers

    Function: Get/Obtain Peer Attention

    Competing Pathway

    Asks peer for attention appropriately

    Get/obtain peer attention

    No attention from peers

    Sees peers playing with one another

    Slaps peer on the back

    Get/obtain peer attention

    Taps peer on shoulder

    Get/Obtain Function-Based SolutionsTo lessen the impact of a lack of peer attention for this student, set up opportunities for this student to interact with their peers positively.

    When involved in a situations where the BIP strategies are unsuccessful, deescalate the situation and promote safety..

    • Isolation or removal of involved student

    • Allow time for student to “cool down.”

    • Removal of other students for safety reasons

    • Utilize calm, detached responses to student

      • Speak respectfully

      • Use simple language

      • Acknowledge cooperation

      • Withdraw if problems escalate

      • Give student space

      • Do not communicate “urgency to gain control”

    • Contact appropriate support staff, administration, and parents

    Progress monitoring

    • Implement a plan and check to see if it working

      • Ask yourself, how will we know if the plan is effective?

      • What measureable goal can be set for the student and be reasonably monitored?

      • How often should progress be checked?

    Over _________________ (time period) __________ (student) will ______________ (demonstrate what behavior)

    in ____ out of ____ (measurement) to ________________ (why)

    Quick Ways to Progress Monitor

    How to Progress Monitor

    How often to Progress Monitor






    • Checklists

    • Direct Observations

    • Tally charts

    • Graphs

    • Student self-assessment

    • Daily Progress Reports

    • Others?

    Goals, Progress Monitoring, Reinforcement

    • Goal

      • Over a three day period, JaQuan will tap peers on the shoulder when requesting attention in 7 out of 10 occurrences to secure peer attention appropriately.

    • Progress Monitoring Method

      • Checklist (did JaQuan use the strategy or not) during peer activities

    • Acquisition Reinforcement Schedule

      • Verbal praise after every use of FERB

      • Extra free time with peers earned when goal is achieved

    We also need to monitor fidelity..

    Questions to ask ourselves..

    • Have we addressed the setting events by using the setting event strategy?

    • Have we used the preventative practices to address antecedents?

    • Have we taught students what to do instead? Have we reviewed? Rehearsed? Practiced? Reinforce?

    • Are our responses to the behavior matching the function? Are we reinforcing appropriate behavior?

    Final Thoughts

    • Understanding how behavior unfolds will help you to engage in better problem solving. When in doubt, map the pathway!

    • Use the pathway to develop your solutions. A one to one correspondence will help you to identify the problem and pick an effective solution.

    • Set realistic goals and progress monitor. If they are being achieved, raise the bar. If not, go back to the pathway.

    • Make sure you are holding up your end of the bargain. A plan that treats all aspects of the problem is more likely to succeed. Check fidelity!


    • PBIS OSEP Technical Assistance Center

    • National Center on Intensive Intervention

    • Missouri PBIS

    • Illinois PBIS

    • Behavior Management Intervention Manual

    • Teacher’s Encyclopedia of Behavior Management

    • Office of Education – Ventura County

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