From bilingualism to heteroglossia:
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From bilingualism to heteroglossia: changing paradigms in sociolinguistic research Presentation at the seminar “ Gränser förr och nu ” , Helsinki 25/10/2010 Univ.-Prof. Dr. Brigitta Busch, Department of Linguistics, University of Vienna. Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna .

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Brigitta busch university of vienna

From bilingualism to heteroglossia:

changing paradigms in sociolinguistic research

Presentation at the seminar “Gränser förr och nu”, Helsinki 25/10/2010

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Brigitta Busch, Department of Linguistics, University of Vienna

Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna


Brigitta busch university of vienna

  • The territorial approach: languages as categories

  • The speaking subject: experiencing language and the representation of heteroglossic repertoires

  • Heteroglossic spaces: linguistic practices and local language regimes

Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna


The territorial approach languages as categories

The territorial approach: languages as categories

Linguistic minorities in different situations:

  • minorities with a kin state - without a kin state

  • minorities within one single state - in several states

  • minorities with in a compact settlement area - in dispersed settlement

  • with recognized status - without official status

  • forming regionally/locally a majority

  • ...

Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna


The territorial approach languages as categories1

The territorial approach: languages as categories

European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (Art. 1 a and b)

  • "regional or minority languages" means languages that are:

    • traditionally used within a given territory of a State by nationals of that State who form a group numerically smaller than the rest of the State's population; and

    • different from the official language(s) of that State;

  • "territory in which the regional or minority language is used" means the geographical area in which the said language is the mode of expression of a number of people justifying the adoption of the various protective and promotional measures provided for in this Charter;

  • Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna


    Minority with a kin state the austro slovenian border region

    Minority with a kin state: the Austro-Slovenian border region

    Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna


    Decreasing number of speakers increasing number of learners

    year

    1975/76

    13%

    1985/86

    22%

    1995/96

    26%

    2005/06

    41%

    2007/08

    44%

    Decreasing number of speakers - increasing number of learners

    children in bilingual classes

    number of speakers

    Percentage

    0% - 5%

    05% - 10%

    10% - 20%

    20% - 30%

    >30%

    Census 2001

    Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna


    Territorial concept

    Territorial concept

    • linked to the notion of a (homogenous) autochthonous ethnic group

    • speakers within this group divided into a core and a marginal circle

    • orientation towards two competing centres (conflict of loyalty)

      • from the perspective of the centres: suspicion of linguistic equivocation undermining the monolingual paradigm; outpost defending (cultural / territorial) claims based on linguistic belonging

      • from the perspective of the periphery: fear of being monopolized and abandoned by the respective centres

    • on the linguistic level:

      • languages seen as bounded units (language ideologies)

      • bilingualism seen as ‘additive monolingualism’

      • dichotomy pure - impure

      • the ideal of the unattainable native speaker across the border in the ‘motherland’

      • deficit oriented view

    Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna


    Deterritorialisation language under the condition of globalisation

    Deterritorialisation (language under the condition of globalisation)

    • speakers on the move:

      • migration and mobility also as a temporary phenomenon

      • multiple local affiliations,

      • translocal links ...

    • minority language speakers beyond the ‘bilingual area’ (especially in urban centres)

    • linguistic diversification of the ‘bilingual area’

    • ‘new’ speakers of minority languages (‘non-ethnic’)

    Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna


    Brigitta busch university of vienna

    • The speaking subject: experiencing language and the representation of heteroglossic repertoires

    Multimodal biographic approach:

    de-constructing preconceived

    linguistic categories and dichotomies

    Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna


    Language portrait exploring the entire linguistic repertoire as a resource

    Language portrait: exploring the entire linguistic repertoireas a resource

    One leg is German (my father) and one leg is Slovenian (my mother), these are the two pillars. In these there is also the Selsko (Slovenian) dialect and the Carinthian dialect and these are actually more important.

    In my headGerman prevails, because in Carinthia almost everything is German, the media and so on. Therefore I mainly think in German, unfortunately.

    On my shoulders I have Italien andEnglish (learnt in school). This rucksack I can unpack when I need it, but it is also a burden on the shoulders.

    Podjunsko dialect I speak with my cousin to tend him my hand.

    Imitations (parody) and my own mixtures and creations, the open space is for things to come.

    Roman, 17 yrs.

    Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna


    Experiencing heteroglossia a multimodal approach

    Experiencing heteroglossia: a multimodal approach

    • Motives

    • deconstructing categories conceiving language as split into bounded and countable units

    • overcoming the concept of a mono- or bilingual ‘norm’ biography

    • exploring the complexity of heteroglossic biographies and Life-Worlds

    • exploring dispositions, experiences, practices and desires linked to language

    • valorizing the entire language repertoire

    Research group ‘Spracherleben’

    University of Vienna

    www.cis.or.at

    Krumm 2001

    Busch 2006, 2008

    Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna


    New speakers of the minority language

    ‘New’ speakers of the minority language

    Evi began to learn Slovenian after her marriage 20 years ago, studies now Slovenian at university

    ... , dass ich zuerst den gailtaler dialekt kennengelernt hab und dann auf der andere seite durch freunde sozusagen auf der italienischen seite den dialekt, das ist auch eine slowenische minderheit noch, das ist der uggowitzer dialekt und d‚ie zwei kann ich also sehr gut. (...) wenn ich switche, dann zwischen deutsch, slowenischen dialekt, uggowitzer dialekt und zwischen der slowenischen hochsprache. Ich find das eigentlich sehr spannend, dass, dass es/ im kopf, da gehen sie schon ein bisschen ineinander über.

    ..., that I learnt first the gailtal dialect and then on the other side through friends so to say, the dialect of the italian side, there is another slovenian minority, the uggowitz dialect and these two I do speak really well. (...) when I switch, then between german, slovenian dialect, uggowitz dialect and the slovenian standard language. I think this is really interesting, that, that this/ in the head, there they are already blending a little.

    German

    Slovenian

    “po domače”

    English

    French

    Italian (right arm)

    Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna


    New speakers of the minority language1

    ‘New’ speakers of the minority language

    Ljubo came as a refugee in the 1990ies from Bosnia, learnt first Slovenian and then German

    meine ersten kontakte mit der slowenischen sprache waren in XXX, wo ich mit den einheimischen/ oder besser gesagt, wo die einheimischen mit uns hauptsächlich im slowenischen dialekt kommuniziert haben, weil wir kein deutsch konnten.

    my fist contact with the slovenian language was in XXX, where I communicated/ or rather where the locals communicated with us mainly in the slovene

    dialect, because we did not speak german.

    in diesem land durch die deutschkenntnisse ist das schon ein schutz. ja, weil jeder, der die sprache nicht so gut bewältigen, wird diskiminiert.

    in this country through the knowledge of geman is a protection. yes, because everyone who cannot speak the language well, is being discriminated.

    Serbocroatian

    Russian

    English

    Slovenian

    German

    Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna


    Valorising linguistic resources

    Valorising linguistic resources

    Tim attended bilingual primary and secondary school

    Eine Zeit lang hab ich sehr versucht, mich zu identifizieren mit dem Slowenischen. (...) Und da hab ich mir auch immer gewünscht, dass ich den Dialekt könnte und --- Verstehen können hab ich ihn gut, aber wenn ich probiert hab ihn zu reden, bin ich eher belächelt worden.

    For some time I tried hard to identify with Slovenian. (...) And then I always wanted to know the dialect and --- I could understand it well, but when I tried to speak it, I was smiled at.

    Dann haben wir unsere komplett eigene slowenische Sprache entwickelt. Und da hat dann Dialekt keine Rolle gespielt. Und --- eeh, --- also das war eine Sprache, die nirgends irgendwie gesprochen wird sonst. Das war wirklich nur für uns aus der Klasse und die Parallelklasse. Man hat problemlos codegeswitcht.

    Then we developed our completely own Slovenian language.And then the dialect did not play a role anymore. And --- eeh, --- yes, this was a language which was nowhere else spoken. That was only for us in our class and for the parallel class. We code switched without any problems.

    German

    Slovenian

    French

    English

    Swedish

    Latin

    Malagasy

    Spanish

    Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna


    Concept of linguistic communicative repertoire

    Concept of linguistic/communicative repertoire

    • marks a change in perspective from particular languages/varieties to groups of speakers and their linguistic choices (Charles Ferguson & John Gumperz, 1960)

    • designates the totality of linguistic and communicative possibilities that speakers can refer to in specific contexts

    • includes registers, styles, dialects etc. as well as the pragmatic knowledge of their adequate use

    • refers to Husserlʼs phenomenological approach which foregrounds the notions of »experience« (Erleben) and »lifeworld« (Lebenswelt)

    • brings back the speaking subject into linguistics

      »What is needed is a sociolinguistics of speech and of resources, of the real bits and chunks of language that make up a repertoire, and of real ways of using this repertoire in communication.«

      (Dell Hymes 1996)

    Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna


    Heteroglossic repertoires

    Heteroglossic repertoires

    evolves by experiencing language in interaction on a emotional and cognitive level

    • draws on a broad range of earlier voices, discourses and codes (heteroglossia, Mikhail Bakhtin)

    • it is not only a cognitive phenomenon but is inscribed into the body (corporal memory, Maurice Merleau-Ponty)

    • corporality includes traces of hegemonic power relations (habitus, Pierre Bourdieu)

    • reverts back to the conditions of its evolution and forward to a contingent space of potentialities including imaginations and desires (Claire Kramsch, Rita Franceschini)

    Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna


    Problems in connection with biographic narratives

    Problems in connection with biographic narratives

    • driven by genre expectations and conventions of narration (linear, time axis, retrospective, dramatization ...)

    • autobiographic accounts linked to ‘techniques of the self’ (Foucault): confession as the expression of a deep ‘inner self’; construction of diachronic continuity and synchronic coherence

    • the narrative is not the reconstruction of a life history but a situational presentation of self (Goffman)

    • the narrative reverts to other texts and discursive constructions in order to relate the narrated biography to a larger (social) context, reinterpret and legitimize it

    • foregrounds the subject and not the interaction in which positioning is realized

    Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna


    Expanding the biographic approach

    Expanding the biographic approach

    combining biographical narratives with:

    • ethnographic observation to understand to relate the narrative form of sense-making with practices of acting in specific contexts

    • critical discourse analysis to understand how personal narratives are related to or shaped by discourses structuring the public realm

    • narration analysis to understand how the narrative evolves in the interaction between (present and absent) participants

    • creative visualizations to supply a mode of sense-making less linked to genre expectations and conventions

    Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna


    Iii heteroglossic spaces linguistic practices and local language regimes

    III. Heteroglossic spaces: linguistic practices and local language regimes

    Linguistic landscape Slovenian secondary school Klagenfurt / Celovec

    Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna


    Linguistic landscape slovenian secondary school klagenfurt celovec

    Linguistic landscape Slovenian secondary school Klagenfurt / Celovec

    Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna


    Linguistic landscape slovenian secondary school klagenfurt celovec1

    Linguistic landscape Slovenian secondary school Klagenfurt / Celovec

    Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna


    Local language regimes interactional regimes communicative regimes

    Local language regimes (interactional regimes, communicative regimes)

    A language regime can be described as a set of constraints on individual language choices. As I understand the term, it consists of habits (Oakeshott 1991), legal provisions (Gauthier et al. 1993), and ideologies (Kroskrity 2000). These three components interact in complex ways.

    Coulmas (2005: 12)

    By interactional regime, we understand minimally a set of behavioral expectations regarding physical conduct, including language. (...) Some of these regimes are elaborations of longestablished ‘old’ regimes, which have been challenged by conditions of ethnolinguistic diversity. (...) Other regimes have surfaced locally as a direct result of contact (...) They often originate exclusively in practice, in the sense that they are quite removed from state-supported institutions with an official language policy. (...) We insist on using the term ‘regime’ in order to emphasize not only a condition, a normative, taken-for-granted dimension which regiments situated understandings of language, but also the importance of inequality of resources and power. Regimes involve the production of subjectivities and may be transitory.

    Blommaert, Collins, Slembrouck (2005: 211f)

    Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna


    Local language regime

    Local language regime

    relies on:

    frames and frame analysis (Irving Goffman) for the analysis of interactional regimes understanding spaces as interactional arenas of (organized) activities unfold

    Interactions follow certain scripts (parts, routines) in which the kind of exchange that is taking place is constantly negotiated and renegotiated

    Frame analysis allows to understand interaction by distinguishing between dominant/subordinate, frontstage/backstage, focused involvement/loose co-presence etc.

    concept of language ideologies:

    “for linguistic anthropology it is increasingly important to understand how microprocesses and their analysis (speech events, sequencing ...) are related to political-economic macroprocesses. (...) Regime evokes the display of political domination in all its many forms, including what Gramsci distinguished as the coercive force of the state and the hegemonic influence of the state-endorsed-culture of society.”

    Paul Koskrity (2000: 3)

    “Ideology is discovered in metalinguistic and metapragmatic discourse, in linguistic practice itself and in the regimentation of of language use through more implicit metapragmatics that indicate how to interpret that language-in-use.”

    Kathryn Woolard (1998: 9)

    Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna


    Language and space

    Language and space

    Linguistic market - value attributed to codes, languages ...; space constituted by symbolic power (Pierre Bourdieu 1982)

    Place and non-place - anthropological places as “formed by individual identities, through complicities of language, local references, the unformulated rules of living know-how (...) defined as relational, historical and concerned with identity". Non-places, in contrast, "a world surrendered to solitary individuality, to the fleeting, the temporary and ephemeral" while they “create solitary contractuality" (Marc Augé 1995)

    Power geometries of space - feminist perspective; notion on “Out of place” - disturbing practicies (Doreen Massey)

    Heterotopia - is capable of juxtaposing in a single real place several spaces, several sites with their respective discursive practices, that are in themselves incompatible; a kind of counter-space (Michel Foucault 1984)

    Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna


    Nexus of practice

    Nexus of practice

    “We will use the term 'nexus of practice' to focus on the point at which historical trajectories of people, places, discourses, ideas, and objects come together to enable some action which in itself alters those history trajectories in some way as these trajectories emanate from this moment of social action.”

    Scollon & Scollon 2004

    Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna


    Heteroglossic space

    Heteroglossic space

    in the Bakhtinian sense:

    • Heterogeneity of individual voices (social background, age, gender, style, self-representation ...)

    • heterogeneity of discourses (linked to social movements, music scenes, commercial enterprises, ethnic organizations with their geographic referential contexts ...)

    • heterogeneity of linguistic practices (language purism, standard languages, jargons, language crossing ...)

    Brigitta Busch, University of Vienna


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