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Sentence Structure. English I PreAP. Warm-up. In the grammar section of your notebook: You will have 30 seconds to write as many two word sentences as possible. Wait until I tell you time has started. Time’s Up! Now, go back to make sure you capitalized and punctuated correctly.

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Sentence structure

Sentence Structure

English I PreAP


Warm up
Warm-up

  • In the grammar section of your notebook:

    • You will have 30 seconds to write as many two word sentences as possible.

    • Wait until I tell you time has started.

    • Time’s Up!

    • Now, go back to make sure you capitalized and punctuated correctly.

    • What are the essentials for a sentence?

      • Subject

      • Predicate (verb)

      • Complete thought


Elements of sentence construction
Elements of Sentence Construction

  • Every sentence has a subject and predicate

    • The subject can be a noun or pronoun

    • The predicate is a verb that expresses the subject’s action or state of being

      predicate

      EXAMPLE: The doghowled at the moon.

subject


Phrase vs clause
Phrase vs. Clause

  • A phrase is a group of related words that

    • does not express a complete thought

    • does not have a subject (noun) and a predicate (verb)

      Examples:

      near the store THESE PHRASES ARE

      building a large dam INCOMPLETE THOUGHTS

      the pretty girl

      **NOTE: Even though these phrases contain nouns and/or verbs, none of the nouns/pronouns or verbs are subjects or predicates.


Phrase vs clause1
Phrase vs. Clause

  • A clause is a group of related words that contain a subject (noun) and a predicate (verb).

  • Clauses can be either dependent or independent:

    • A dependent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a predicate, but does NOT express a complete thought

    • An independent clause is a group of words that contains a subject, predicate, AND expresses a complete thought


Examples
Examples

  • Dependent Clause

    EXAMPLE: after Webster took the train

    *This is an incomplete thought or idea, one that cannot stand by itself and is dependent on more words to make it complete

  • Independent Clause

    EXAMPLE: Webster took the train

    *This is a complete thought or idea, that can stand by itself , independent of other words.

    *Need more help with dependent vs. independent clauses, note page 423 – 4 in your SpringBoard Grammar Handbook.


Phrase or clause
Phrase or Clause?

  • while collecting data

  • Tom read the book

  • then he grabbed the sandwich

  • her friend saw the movie

  • before the movie begins

  • they have lunch sixth period

  • addressing the crowd


Types of sentences
Types of Sentences

  • There are four types of sentences:

    Take a white piece of paper and fold it in half and then fold it in half again. Open up the paper and you should have four quadrants. In each quadrant, write one of the four sentence-types.

Simple

Compound

Complex

Compound-Complex


Simple sentence
Simple Sentence

  • A sentence with one independent clause and no dependent clauses

    MY EXAMPLE: (circle the subject, highlight the predicate)

    Mrs.Rammosdiscussedpolicies and procedures on the first day.

    YOUR EXAMPLE: (circle the subject, highlight the predicate)


Compound sentence
Compound Sentence

  • A sentence with multiple independent clauses but no dependent clauses

  • The independent clauses can be linked with a coordinating conjunction (and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet) OR a semicolon (;)

    MY EXAMPLES: (underline the independent clauses and circle the “link”)

    The clown frightened the little girl and she ran off screaming.

    Doctors are concerned with the rise in food allergies; they are unsure of its cause.

    YOUR EXAMPLES: (underline the independent clauses and circle the “link”)


Complex sentence
Complex Sentence

  • A sentence with one independent clause and at least one dependent clause

  • Dependent clauses are easily spotted by looking for “dependent marker” words: because, before, since, while, although, if, until, when, after, as, as if

  • If the dependent clause comes before the independent clause, they must be linked with a comma (,)

    MY EXAMPLES: (highlight the dependent clause, underline the independent clause and circle the “link”)

    After Mary added up all of the sales, she discovered that she was 25 dollars short.

    Mary was disappointedbecause she realized she was 25 dollars short.

    YOUR EXAMPLES: (highlight the dependent clause, underline the independent clause and circle the “link”)


Compound complex sentence
Compound-Complex Sentence

  • A sentence with multiple independent clauses and at least one dependent clause

    MY EXAMPLE: (highlight the dependent clause, underline the independent clause and circle the “link”)

    AlthoughI like to go camping, I haven’t had the time to go lately and I can’t find anyone to go with me.

    YOUR EXAMPLE: (highlight the dependent clause, underline the independent clause and circle the “link”)


Great grammar resource
Great Grammar Resource

  • If you are ever at home struggling or need a refresher, go to:

    PURDUE Online Writing Lab (OWL)

    http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/


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