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Materials Used In Batteries. Dwight Younge. Introduction. Battery (two categories) Primary (one-time) Secondary (rechargeable) The need for batteries: Technological reliance Quality of life Focus: Canada Canada (2004) Est. 450 million batteries sold Est. 348 million discarded.

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Introduction
Introduction

  • Battery (two categories)

    • Primary (one-time)

    • Secondary (rechargeable)

  • The need for batteries:

    • Technological reliance

    • Quality of life

  • Focus:

    • Canada

  • Canada (2004)

    • Est. 450 million batteries sold

    • Est. 348 million discarded


Battery structure
Battery structure

  • Insulation tube (usually polymers)

  • Metal end caps

  • Common chemicals used

    • Lead-acid

    • Lithium

    • Nickel-Cadmium

    • Silver oxide

    • Mercury

    • Copper

    • Zinc

    • Manganese

    • Lithium

    • Potassium


Zinc carbon battery 1 5v
Zinc-carbon battery (1.5V)

Photo by The Battery Association of Japan


Battery disposal
Battery disposal

  • Batteries have definite lifetimes

  • What happens to dead batteries?

    • Trash

      • 60% of households in Canada

      • Improperly disposed batteries end up in landfills or incinerators

    • Dropped off at battery depot

      • Over half of the households in PEI do so

    • Any hazards associated with improper battery disposal?


Environmental hazards
Environmental Hazards

  • Normal alkaline batteries in trash

    • Not too harmful but not recommended

  • Safety risk due to large volume disposal

    • Batteries can react and overheat

  • Chemical leakage (heavy metal toxic batteries):

    • Lead-acid

    • Lithium

    • Nickel-Cadmium

    • Silver oxide

    • Mercury

  • Plant, animal, and ocean life

  • Chemicals release toxins when batteries are combusted

    • Incineration


Health issues
Health Issues

  • Human interaction with chemicals from improperly disposed batteries

    • E.g. Lead (inhalation)

    • E.g. Mercury (skin absorption)

  • Some health problems

    • Abdominal pain

    • Liver and kidney damage

    • Skin irritation

    • Asthma

    • Decreased IQ in children (****)

    • Cancer


Proper disposal methods
Proper disposal methods

  • Do not dispose of dead batteries in the trash

  • Designate separate waste bins for batteries

  • Local battery disposal station

  • Community-run disposal program

  • Proper disposal

    • Most common in PEI

    • Controlled disposal methods outweigh disposal through regular waste stream



How can we reduce battery waste
How can we reduce battery waste?

  • Recycling

  • Consider battery alternatives

    • Rechargeable batteries

    • Renewable sources (eg. Solar)

  • Modify existing batteries

    • Less lead, cadmium, mercury

    • Research


Earth
Earth

Photo by NASA



References
References

  • http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/16-002-x/2008001/10539-eng.htm (Statistics Canada)

  • http://www.baj.or.jp/e/knowledge/structure.html (Battery Association of Japan)

  • http://www.ppgintl.com/products/battery-sleeve-insulation-1 (Precision Products Group, Inc.)

  • http://www.frost.com/prod/servlet/market-insight-top.pag?docid=20759887 (Frost & Sullivan)


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