Living with Chronic Illness. William P. Wattles, Ph.D. Psychology 314. Acute disease. short-term less common than chronic either die or get well. Chronic illness.
Living with Chronic Illness
William P. Wattles, Ph.D.
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
sickle cell anemia
Diabetes is a disease in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin
Insulin acts to reduce levels of glucose in the blood by interacting in some unknown way with cell membranes.
Diabetes is a disease in which the body cannot properly store and use fuel for energy.The fuel that your body needs is called glucose, a form of sugar.
Glucose comes from foods such as breads, cereals, pasta, rice, potatoes, fruits and some vegetables
The cause of diabetes continues to be a mystery, although both genetics and environmental factors such as obesity and lack of exercise appear to play roles.
Among states having data for 1994 and 2002, the age-adjusted prevalence of diagnosed diabetes increased more than 10% between 1994-2002 (see detailed tables for maps).
In twenty-three states including South Carolina, age-adjusted prevalence was at least 50% higher in 2002 than in 1994.
The prevalence of diabetes (diagnosed plus undiagnosed) in the total population of people who were 40-74 years of age increased from 8.9% in the period 1976-1980 to 12.3% by 1988-1994.
“The increasing frequency of obesity and sedentary lifestyles in the population, make it likely that diabetes will continue to be a major health problem in the U.S.”
High blood glucose levels over a long period of time can cause blindness, heart disease, kidney problems, amputations, nerve damage, and erectile dysfunction.
Good diabetes care and management can delay or prevent the onset of these complications
Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body makes little or no insulin. It used to be called insulin-dependent or juvenile diabetes.
There is nothing to be done to prevent type 1 diabetes, even early diagnosis will not prevent it.
It is not caused by eating too much sugar.
Type 2 diabetes occurs when your body can’t use the insulin it makes.
A person with type 2 diabetes, you may be able to keep your blood glucose levels in a target range by healthy eating, exercising and taking diabetes medication.
Before age 15
equal between men and women
After age 30
affects more women
affects poor more than middle class
General Population 6.2%
African American 13%
People can live a long and healthy life by keeping their blood glucose levels in the target range.
They can do this by:
Eating healthy meals
Taking diabetes medication, including insulin
Eat three meals and a bedtime snack each day.
Include a food from each of the food groups at each meal.
If you are thirsty, drink water or diet pop.
If you are overweight, eat smaller portions. Reduce your intake of fat.
Limit sweet and fatty foods.
Enormous cost to the family and society
Financial and emotional resources exhausted
Combines with loss of loved one
Chronic stress of providing care for Alzheimer’s patients lowers immune system functioning and increases vulnerability to illness.