Living with chronic illness
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Living with Chronic Illness. William P. Wattles, Ph.D. Psychology 314. Acute disease. short-term less common than chronic either die or get well. Chronic illness.

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Living with chronic illness

Living with Chronic Illness

William P. Wattles, Ph.D.

Psychology 314

Acute disease
Acute disease

  • short-term

  • less common than chronic

  • either die or get well

Chronic illness
Chronic illness

  • A disorder that persists for a long time and is either incurable or results in pathological changes that limit normal functioning.

Chronic illness1
Chronic illness

  • Virtually everyone will eventually develop some type of chronic condition.

Chronic illness2
Chronic illness

  • Must deal with:

    • Symptoms of the disease

    • Stress of Treatment

    • Feelings of vulnerability

    • Loss of Control

    • Threat to self-esteem

Examples of chronic illnesses






chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

multiple sclerosis

Parkinson’s disease

muscular dystrophy

sickle cell anemia


Examples of chronic illnesses

Chronic disease
Chronic disease

  • long-lasting

  • common

    • 50% at any point in time

    • 100% at one time or another

  • Variable course

  • never completely healthy

  • Coping with chronic disease
    Coping with Chronic Disease

    • Attitudes and belief about illness

    • personal traits such as depression and optimism

    • coping strategies

    • compliance with prescribed regimens

    • social support.

    Attitudes and beliefs
    Attitudes and Beliefs

    • According to both the Theory of Reasoned Action and Health Belief Model attitudes and beliefs predict adaptive behavior.

    • Social norms

    • attitudes

    • affect

    • facilitating conditions


    • Depression may take the energy away needed to adapt to the disease

    • anxiety may interfere with sleep and other health processes.

    • Optimism-a generalized expectation that the future looks good-associated with more adaptive behaviors.

    Social support
    Social Support.

    • Social support presumably serves to buffer the effects of stress for the cancer patient and may improve the prognosis.

    • The most helpful behaviors seem to be emotional support, sympathy and caring.

    Impact of chronic illness
    Impact of Chronic Illness

    • Crisis theory

      • individuals need a state of equilibrium

      • chronic illness upsets this state

      • people search for ways to restore homeostasis

      • failure to do so results in

        • anxiety

        • fear

        • stress

    Impact on the patient
    Impact on the patient

    • Psychological functioning

      • social

      • physical

      • mental health

    • Self-image

      • positive and negative changes

    • Coping strategies

    Opportunities for psychology
    Opportunities for psychology

    • Strategies to improve compliance

      • “Noncompliance is a substantial problem in the treatment of chronic illness.”

    • Creation of support groups

    • Dealing with psychological repercussions

    • Sustaining of personal relationships

    Impact on the family
    Impact on the family

    • Adult children

      • change in relationship

    • Spouse

    • Parents


    Diabetes is a disease in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin

    Insulin acts to reduce levels of glucose in the blood by interacting in some unknown way with cell membranes.



    Diabetes is a disease in which the body cannot properly store and use fuel for energy.The fuel that your body needs is called glucose, a form of sugar.

    Glucose comes from foods such as breads, cereals, pasta, rice, potatoes, fruits and some vegetables


    The cause of diabetes continues to be a mystery, although both genetics and environmental factors such as obesity and lack of exercise appear to play roles.

    Among states having data for 1994 and 2002, the age-adjusted prevalence of diagnosed diabetes increased more than 10% between 1994-2002 (see detailed tables for maps).

    In twenty-three states including South Carolina, age-adjusted prevalence was at least 50% higher in 2002 than in 1994.

    Incidence of diabetes

    The prevalence of diabetes (diagnosed plus undiagnosed) in the total population of people who were 40-74 years of age increased from 8.9% in the period 1976-1980 to 12.3% by 1988-1994.

    “The increasing frequency of obesity and sedentary lifestyles in the population, make it likely that diabetes will continue to be a major health problem in the U.S.”

    Incidence of Diabetes

    Diabetes is a life long condition

    High blood glucose levels over a long period of time can cause blindness, heart disease, kidney problems, amputations, nerve damage, and erectile dysfunction.

    Good diabetes care and management can delay or prevent the onset of these complications

    Diabetes is a life-long condition.

    Type 1 diabetes

    Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body makes little or no insulin. It used to be called insulin-dependent or juvenile diabetes.

    There is nothing to be done to prevent type 1 diabetes, even early diagnosis will not prevent it.

    It is not caused by eating too much sugar.

    Type 1 diabetes

    Type 2 diabetes

    Type 2 diabetes occurs when your body can’t use the insulin it makes.

    A person with type 2 diabetes, you may be able to keep your blood glucose levels in a target range by healthy eating, exercising and taking diabetes medication.

    Type 2 diabetes

    Adjusting to diabetes

    Type 1 insulin it makes.


    Before age 15


    equal between men and women

    requires insulin

    imperils kidney

    Type 2

    Noninsulin dependent

    After age 30


    affects more women

    affects poor more than middle class

    no injections

    imperils heart

    Adjusting to Diabetes

    Incidence of diabetes1

    General Population 6.2% insulin it makes.

    African American 13%

    Latinos 10.2%

    Men 8.3%

    Women 8.9%

    Incidence of Diabetes

    The good news

    People can live a long and healthy life by keeping their blood glucose levels in the target range.

    They can do this by:

    Eating healthy meals


    Taking diabetes medication, including insulin

    The good news

    Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus iddm
    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) blood glucose levels in the target range.

    • Management very demanding

      • injections

      • diet

      • exercise

    • Serious costs of failing to comply

      • blindness

      • kidney failure

      • amputation

    Lifestyle changes

    Eat healthy blood glucose levels in the target range.

    Eat three meals and a bedtime snack each day.

    Include a food from each of the food groups at each meal.

    If you are thirsty, drink water or diet pop.

    If you are overweight, eat smaller portions. Reduce your intake of fat.

    Limit sweet and fatty foods.

    Lifestyle changes

    Cardiac rehabilitation
    Cardiac Rehabilitation blood glucose levels in the target range.

    • Fifty percent survive

    • Major surgery and recovery

    • Lifestyle changes

      • diet

      • exercise

      • stop smoking

    • Motivation

    Psychological reactions to chd
    Psychological reactions to CHD blood glucose levels in the target range.

    • Depression

    • Anxiety

    • Anger

    • Fear

    • Guilt

    • Interpersonal conflict

    Coping with cancer
    Coping with Cancer blood glucose levels in the target range.

    • Approximately 1.25 million people diagnosed with cancer in 1998

    Coping with cancer1
    Coping with Cancer blood glucose levels in the target range.

    • Surgery

    • Radiation

    • Chemotherapy

    • Hormonal treatment

    • Immunotherapy

    Cancer treatment side effects
    Cancer treatment side effects blood glucose levels in the target range.

    • Loss of hair

    • burns

    • nausea

    • vomiting

    • fatigue

    • sterility

    Survival blood glucose levels in the target range.

    • More than half of all cancer patients survive at least five years

    Hiv and aids
    HIV and AIDS blood glucose levels in the target range.

    • Relatively new disease

    • “The virus is not easily transmitted from person to person”

      • sex

      • IV drug

      • blood transfusion

    • Preventable

    Aids hiv
    AIDS/HIV blood glucose levels in the target range.

    • 1999-IN the U.S., HIV/AIDS fell from 8th to 14th among leading causes of death.

    • It remained the leading cause of death for black persons aged 25-44.

    Alzheimer s disease
    Alzheimer’s Disease blood glucose levels in the target range.

    • Degenerative disease of the brain

      • cognitive impairment

      • memory loss

      • personality change

    • Sure diagnosis only by autopsy

    • Cause unknown

    Alzheimer s and the family

    Enormous cost to the family and society blood glucose levels in the target range.

    Financial and emotional resources exhausted

    Combines with loss of loved one

    Chronic stress of providing care for Alzheimer’s patients lowers immune system functioning and increases vulnerability to illness.

    Alzheimer’s and the family

    The end
    The End blood glucose levels in the target range.