The Nervous system. The nerve cell is the basic unit of communication in the vertebrate nervous system. Three Classes of neurons. The Neural circuit consists of Sensory neurons receptor for stimulus Interneuron integrate signals Motor neuron transfer signal to effector (muscle).
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The Nervous system
The nerve cell is the basic unit of communication in the vertebrate nervous system
Signals between the brain and spinal cord move to the body regions by nerves
Sensory nerves move a signal towards the brain and spinal cord
Motor neurons move a signal from the brain or spinal cord to the body
Central nervous system
Is the brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system
all nerves that carry signals to and from the CNS
Somatic nerves relay commands to and from skeletal muscle
Autonomic nerves send signals to and from smooth muscles
slow down the body activity when the body is not under stress
Rest and digest
increase overall body activity during times of stress, excitement or danger
fight or flight response
31 pair of spinal nerves
Controls some reflex actions like bladder emptying
Association is the linkage of information to structural and chemical changes
short term- few bits lasts a couple of hours
Long term- permanent and limitless
The most important info goes rapidly into long term storage
memory is stored in a form resistant to degradation
Possibly caused by changes in synapses.
If a tree falls in the woods with no one to listen does it make a sound?
olfaction and taste
touch, stretch, hearing, equilibrium
radiant energy, infared
Touch & Pressure
Mechanoreceptors that respond to changes or constant pressure
Increase in temperature causes and increase in AP
Respond to intense stimulus on other receptors, cannot be ignored
Mechanoreceptors give measurement as to the location of all the muscles and bones in a given moment.
Receptors located on tongue, roof of mouth, throat and palate
olfactory bulbs in brain interpret smell
smell is often combined with emotion
Closed system of fluid filled sacs
Contain otoliths that detect changes in orientation as well as acceleration
Overstimulation of the hair cells of the vestibular apparatus results in motion sickness
Outer sclera (white) (is all the way around)
Pupil (opening to the back)
Retina (back side has photoreceptors and support material)
Fovea has highest concentration of photoreceptors.
Photoreceptors are in the retina
When rods or cones are stimulated they send a signal to the brains visual cortex.
In the brain the final interpretation makes sense of sight
The Endocrine system
The oldest method of control is using a signal molecule that moves from one part of the body to the other
Good fit rx occurs
Does not bind,
Three possible hormones
A cell with a single receptor on it