out of plane rotations
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2. 1. 3. Out-of-plane Rotations. Environment constraints Surveillance systems Car driver images ASM: Similarity does not remove 3D pose Multiple-view database Other approaches Non-linear models 3D models: multiple views. AV@CAR Database.

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out of plane rotations

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Out-of-plane Rotations
  • Environment constraints
    • Surveillance systems
    • Car driver images
  • ASM:
    • Similarity does not remove 3D pose
    • Multiple-view database
  • Other approaches
    • Non-linear models
    • 3D models: multiple views

AV@CAR Database

projective geometry
Geometric operations by means of linear algebra

2D points are 3-component vectors

Multiple views of the same planar object can be related by homographies

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Projective Geometry

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homographies

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Homographies
  • Homographies hold both for object or camera movements
  • The points must be coplanar

H

coplanar face model

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Coplanar face model
  • Silhouette points are excluded (out of main plane)
  • Half the nose points are excluded (easy occlusion)
  • First iteration: At least 8 correspondences to compute H (4 2D-points)

Model Coordinates

Image Coordinates

image matching
ASM Image Model (Similarity)

Gradient normal to the shape contour

Projective transformations

Do not preserve angles nor distance relationships

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Image Matching

H

results

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Results

ASM

  • Training and test on multi-view data
  • Cross validation

PASM

comparison to related work

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Comparison to related work

Ratios with respect to error on frontal images

results training just a single view frontal

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Results training just a single view (frontal)
  • Training set: Frontal
  • Test set: Multilple views
conclusions on pasm

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Conclusions on PASM
  • If multi-view dataset available
    • Almost invariant to rotations up to 60 degrees
  • Training only on frontal views
    • Considerably reduces (50%) variation of ASM due to viewpoint
  • Left-right rotations better handled than up-down nodding
  • Very difficult to compare to other results
  • Points used for alignment can affect performance
    • Not considerable for expected ASM precision
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