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Medieval Europe. Coach Ripp World History 10 th Grade – B144. Vocab. Middle Ages Charlemagne Feudalism Lords Knights Serfs Manor Manorialism Three-field system. Roman Catholicism Monasteries Convents St. Augustine The Pope Crusades Thomas Aquinas guilds Magna Carta.

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Medieval europe

Medieval Europe

Coach Ripp

World History

10th Grade – B144


Vocab

Vocab

  • Middle Ages

  • Charlemagne

  • Feudalism

  • Lords

  • Knights

  • Serfs

  • Manor

  • Manorialism

  • Three-field system

  • Roman Catholicism

  • Monasteries

  • Convents

  • St. Augustine

  • The Pope

  • Crusades

  • Thomas Aquinas

  • guilds

  • Magna Carta


Medieval europe

  • Western Europe in turmoil

    • Historians sometimes refer to the period from the fall of Rome (476 A.D.) to the 1400’s, as the “Middle Ages.”

    • It is also called the Medieval Period – the period between ancient civilization and modern times.

SNAPSHOT IN HISTORY


Medieval europe

Fall of Rome

  • Beyond Rome’s frontiers lived Germanic tribes like the Goths, Vandals, Lombards, Burgundians, and Franks.

  • Rome considered them uncivilized barbarians.

  • The Huns moved from Central Asia to Europe. This movement forced Germanic tribes to move westward. This movement pushed the tribes forward into the Roman Empire.

  • The Visigoths were permitted by Rome to entire the empire to escape. Later they turned against the Republic and sacked the city of Rome in 410 A.D.

  • This in turn led other Germanic tribes to establish their own kingdoms. Angles and Saxons invaded England, the Visigoths into Spain, Lombards Northern Italy, and the Franks took Gaul (France.)


Medieval europe

Fall of Rome Effects

  • Collapse of Trade:

  • The constant warfare of this period disrupted trade across Europe. Travel became unsafe because of violence. Bridges and roads fell into disrepair. Cities and towns were abandoned. Bandits roamed freely without law and order. Shortages of food and goods grew. Life became increasingly rural and unsafe. Wealthy families moved out of towns to the safety of fortified homes in the countryside.

  • Loss of learning:

  • people gave up their interest in learning. They were having to fight everyday to survive. Churches became the only places where people could read and write.


Rise of the franks

Charles Martel

Pepin

Charlemagne

Rise of the Franks

The Franks established the largest of the Germanic kingdoms. Charles Martel, a powerful nobleman, helped unite the Franks. In 732 A.D., at the Battle of Tours, Martel stopped the advance of Islam from Spain into France.


Rise of the franks1

Charles Martel

Pepin

Charlemagne

Rise of the Franks

In 751 A.D. his son Pepin seized power and became the King of the Franks. With the support of the Pope, Pepin marched across the Alps and took control of Northern Italy. Pepin is credited with starting a new type of political structure within these conquered lands. He created a powerful army by granting lands to the nobles in exchange for service in the king’s army with their knights.

This is the first time we will

see an alliance between

the sovereign Church w/

a political figure.


Rise of the franks2

Charles Martel

Pepin

Charlemagne

Rise of the Franks

Pepin’s son, Charlemagne becomes king in 768 A.D. Charlemagne expanded the practice of land distribution. Peasants gave up their rights to the local lords in exchange for better security. They offered services “in kind,” providing firewood, livestock, and crops.

He enlarged the sized of the kingdom. Made the capital Aachen. He used profits to construct a imperial court similar to Rome and a palace school for nobility. At the request of the Pope, Charlemagne was crowned “Emperor” of the Holy Roman Empire in 800 A.D. The coronation signified political and religious unity within Western Europe.


Europe plunges into chaos again the fall of the franks

Europe plunges into chaos againthe Fall of the Franks

  • The death of Charlemagne left the empire to be distributed into thirds amongst his sons.

  • At the same time, Europe was facing threats of outside forces mobilizing their attacks from many sides of the empire.

  • From the east the Slavs and Magyars invaded Germany, France, and Italy. From the north, the Vikings. They were fierce warriors and sailors from Scandinavia. From 800 – 1000 the Vikings searched the northern coast for trade, loot, and land. Their repeated assaults led to brutal atrocities. Their biggest contribution was longboats that were easy to maneuver and could sail in heavy seas. Rumored to have been the first to find the “New World.”


Applying what you have learned

APPLYING WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED

  • How did the collapse of central authority have continuing effects on Western Europe?

  • ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Feudalism 800 1400 ad

Feudalism (800-1400ad)

  • To protect themselves from violence and to provide for basic economic needs, people throughout Western Europe adopted the system introduced by the Franks.

  • Kings offered nobles a grant of land, known as a feud or fief, in exchange for loyalty and service. The nobleman, known as the vassal, gave homage (allegiance) to the king.

  • This new order, known as feudalism, helped people survive the breakdown of central government and order.


Snapshot of feudal society

  • Strict Class Structure

  • Nobles, Lords, Knights,

  • Serfs

Snapshot of Feudal Society:

  • Manorialism

  • King relies on Lords

  • Serfs work on land

  • Lord protected serf for his labor

  • 3 field

  • system

  • Role determined by attitudes in Church and nobility

  • Women serve Men

  • Women inferior

  • Bible

  • Large family

  • Infant deaths

  • Noble women

  • Domestic chores

  • education

  • Peasant women

  • Side by side

  • Manual labor

  • System for security


Feudal society 800 1000ad

FEUDAL SOCIETY (800-1000AD)

  • SOCIAL

    • To protect themselves from violence and to provide for basic economic needs, people throughout Western Europe adopted the system introduced by the Franks.

    • Kings offered a grant of land, known as a feud or fief, in exchange for loyalty and service.

    • The nobleman, known as the vassal, gave homage (allegiance) to the king.

    • This new order, known as feudalism, helped people survive the breakdown of central government and order.

    • The major characteristic of feudal society was the development of a strict class structure based on control of land and military power.

    • People born as serfs, knights, or lords could not change their social position.

    • Local lords (nobles) were given land by their rulers in exchange for military service. These lords had their own small armies of knights.

  • POLITICAL & ECONOMIC

    • Under the feudal system, the leading nobles controlled political life.

    • They built large castles for their own protection, often rivaling those of the king.

    • The nobles often fought among themselves or challenged the king’s authority. Civil Wars were frequent, and powerful nobles often grabbed land for themselves.

    • Most people live on manors. A manor consisted of the lord’s house and the peasants living in the surrounding territory. (Manorialism)

    • Each manor produced its own food, clothing, and shelter. Manor’s varied in size and wealth.

    • In England alone there were more than 9,000 manors.

    • Serfs gave their lord part of their harvest in return for the use of land.


Acting as an amateur historian

ACTING AS AN AMATEUR HISTORIAN

  • Write a short story describing what life was like on a typical day as a medieval noble or peasant?

  • ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


The age of faith

The Age of Faith

As central government falls, and different ethnic groups vie for power for 200 years during the Middle Ages, the Roman Catholic Church remained the single most powerful organization in Western Europe. The reason…?


The church

The Church

Successor of St. Peter. Inherited role of Peter in running the Church.

Where monks and nuns spent their lives devoted to prayer.


The age of faith two christian thinkers

The Age of Faith – Two Christian Thinkers

  • St. Augustine

    • Lived at the time of the fall of Rome

    • In The City of God, Augustine asks why God is letting barbarians destroy the Christian civilization of Rome

    • Conclusion – no earthly city – even Rome – can last forever. Only “the City of God” in Heaven is eternal.

  • St. Thomas Aquinas

    • Lived 800 yrs. after Augustine

    • Most famous book, Summa Theologica, provided a summary of Christian beliefs

    • Aquinas showed how the works of Aristotle were compatible with Christian teachings.

    • “God has given man the power of reason to help him explain and interpret the world.”

    • Also believed in natural law

    • These are universal laws independent of any laws passed by our government. These laws are based on reason. Our reason tells us what we must do in order to “do good and to avoid evil.” Aquinas believed that we can use our understanding of natural law to evaluate the law of governments. If a human law conflicts with natural law – it is not a law therefore we do not have to obey it. “Laws of this kind are of violence rather than laws.” Aquinas believed that citizens even have the right to remove rulers who continually enact unjust laws. Although Aquinas thought a ruler’s power came from God, he felt this power came from God through the people.


Applying what you have learned1

APPLYING WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED

  • Why do you think the teachings of St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas were important to people in the Middle Ages.

  • ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


The crusades

The Crusades

The power and influence of the Catholic Church in the Middle Ages can be seen in its ability to carry out a “holy war” against Muslims. For hundreds of years, Christian pilgrims had regularly visited Jerusalem, where the sacred events depicted in the bible were believed to have taken place. However, in the 11th century, the Seljuk Turks took control of the Holy Land and drove out the Christian pilgrims.


The crusades1

The Crusades

Call to Free the Holy Land

The effects of the Crusades

New Ideas and Products

Europeans had greater exposure to new ideas such as use of 0 in math, foreign products such as silk, rice, spices, coffee, perfumes, cotton, raisins, glass mirrors.

Increased Trade

European demand for foreign products, like spices, sugar, rugs led to increased trade between Middle East.

Growth of Intolerance

The Crusades led to the Christian persecution of Jews and Muslims, as well as to the Muslim persecution of Christians.

  • 1095, Pope Urban II received a plea from the Byzantine Emperor in Constantinople’s falling to the Muslims.

  • Urban II shocked at the possibility of losing Constantinople called on all Christians in Europe to unite and fight a holy Crusade – a war to recapture the Holy Land from Muslim rulers.

  • The Church promised salvation to all who participated.

  • The word Crusade meant war of the cross. Crusaders fought under the banner of a red cross against a white background. This brought unity amongst all. Pilgrims, wives, and children participated.

  • Most died of hunger and disease along the way


Acting as an amateur historian1

ACTING AS AN AMATEUR HISTORIAN

Read the following primary source, a speech by the Pope Urban II. Then answer the question that follows.

  • What were some of the reasons that inspired Europeans to take part in the Crusades?

  • ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Pope Urban II’s Sermon calling for the First Crusade:

“Begin the journey to the Holy Sepulcher; conquer the land which the wicked have seized, the land given by God to the children of Israel and which, as the Scripture says, ‘is all milk and honey.’ undertake this journey for {forgiveness} of your sins, with the promise of ‘glory will not fade’ in Heaven. When you make an armed attack on the enemy, let all those on God’s side cry out, ‘God wills it!”


The later middle ages

The Later Middle Ages

  • During the later Middle Ages, Europe underwent gradual changes. Trade first revived when merchants displayed their goods at fairs, often inside a castle’s walls. Trade slowly increased and cities along trade routes grew. The Crusades increased interest in luxury goods from the East. A new merchant class arose in the towns. Merchants and craftsmen organized into powerful associations known as guilds. New inventions like better water mills, windmills, and mechanical clocks improved life. Cities in Bologna and Paris founded the first universities.

  • Throughout the Middle Ages, important towns had often competed to build the largest church or cathedral. The later Middle Ages saw the introduction of a new art style. The first Gothic church was built in France in 1231. Its pointed arches, high spires, and beautiful stained glass windows were designed to give worshippers the feeling they were being transported to another world.


The later middle ages1

The Later Middle Ages

  • During the later Middle Ages, Europe underwent gradual changes. Trade first revived when merchants displayed their goods at fairs, often inside a castle’s walls. Trade slowly increased and cities along trade routes grew. The Crusades increased interest in luxury goods from the East. A new merchant class arose in the towns. Merchants and craftsmen organized into powerful associations known as guilds. New inventions like better water mills, windmills, and mechanical clocks improved life. Cities in Bologna and Paris founded the first universities.

  • Throughout the Middle Ages, important towns had often competed to build the largest church or cathedral. The later Middle Ages saw the introduction of a new art style. The first Gothic church was built in France in 1231. Its pointed arches, high spires, and beautiful stained glass windows were designed to give worshippers the feeling they were being transported to another world.


Acting as an amateur historian2

ACTING AS AN AMATEUR HISTORIAN

The Greek Parthenon

Cathedral of Ulm, Germany

  • What characteristics make these two buildings alike? How are they different?

    ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Medieval europe

English Political TraditionsIn the Middle Ages, England developed traditions of liberty and limited self government that were unique in Europe.

  • Magna Carta: in 1215, the English nobles (known as barons) rebelled against the taxes and forced loads being collected by King John. They were helped by the Church and towns. John was forced to sign an agreement promising not to take away any freeman’s property or to imprison any free man without following procedures established by the laws of the land. The Magna Carta guaranteed all free men the right to trial by jury, and further forced the king to obtain the consent of a council of nobles for most new taxes.

  • Parliament: Later English kings summoned nobles and representatives of the town to grant them new taxes. This led to the origins of Parliamant


Learning with graphic organizers

Learning with Graphic Organizers

FEUDALISM

Economic

  • ______________

  • ______________

  • ______________

Social

  • ______________

  • ______________

  • ______________

Political

______________

______________

______________

Role of Church

Learning

& Art

  • ______________

  • ______________

Power

______________

______________

______________

Crusades

  • ______________

  • ______________

  • ______________


Chapter study cards

Chapter Study Cards

Age of Faith

  • The Catholic Church was the most powerful organization in Western Europe. The Pope was the head of the Church.

    • Christians believed the Church held power to send persons to Heaven or Hell.

    • Church was the main center of learning.

    • Church wealth grew as many nobles who died left their land to the Church in order to gain entry into Heaven.

  • Christian Europeans challenged Muslims for control of the Holy Land. Crusades increased trade with the East.

People in the Middle Ages

  • St. Augustine appealed to faith in God.

  • Charlemagne was crowned Holy Roman Emperor at Aachen in 800 A.D., expanded the empire, revived learning.

  • St. Thomas Aquinas argued men could judge government laws against natural law and could overthrow unjust rulers.

  • King John signed the Magna Carta in 1215. It guaranteed Englishmen the right to a trial and required consent of the nobles before passing any new taxes.

Feudalism

Feudalism arose in Europe out of the chaos after the fall of Rome. It provided security and protection in a period of great turmoil.

  • Social system: Society was divided between king, nobles, knights, and serfs. Lords gave lands to vassals in exchange for service.

  • Political system: The king ruled with the advice of his leading nobles. The nobles served the King with their knights, armed warriors on horses.

  • Economic system: (Manorialism) Serfs worked on the land of their lord. Self sufficient.


Checking your understanding

CHECKING YOUR UNDERSTANDING

Directions: Place the letter that best answers the question

Use the passage and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question.

“The peace of God declared that feudal warfare could not take place on church property, and it promised sanctuary in churches and abbeys to fugitives from combat. The Truce of God forbade from Wednesday evening until Monday morning, on holidays, and during the religious seasons of Christmas and Lent…”

  • The main idea of this passage is that ---

  • War was limited to religious holidays

  • Religion was dictated by custom and feudal law

  • Landlords determined when warfare took place

  • The Church limited where and when Christians could fight.


Checking your understanding1

CHECKING YOUR UNDERSTANDING

“The peace of God declared that feudal warfare could not take place on church property, and it promised sanctuary in churches and abbeys to fugitives from combat. The Truce of God forbade from Wednesday evening until Monday morning, on holidays, and during the religious seasons of Christimas and Lent…”

  • The main idea of this passage is that ---

  • War was limited to religious holidays

  • Religion was dictated by custom and feudal law

  • Landlords determined when warfare took place

  • The Church limited where and when Christians could fight.

Examine the question.This question test your ability to interpret a document. Recall what you know. The document shows the power of the Church over medieval society. It describes the Peace of God and the Truce of God. These were plans and periods that specified where and when Chrstians could not fight. Apply what you know.Choice A and Choice B are not stated in the passage. Choice C is inaccurate since it was the Church not landlords that limited when wars took place. Choice D is the best answer, since it states in brief the main message of this passage: The Church could limit when people fought.


Checking for understanding now try answering some additional questions

Checking for understanding…Now try answering some additional questions.

2. “Western Europe went into a long, deep sleep. Learning was found only in the religious orders. Fear and chaos reigned.” What period in history does this statement by a historian best describe.

  • The early rise in Christianity

  • The start of the Crusades

  • Western Europe after the fall of Rome

  • The rise of Islam

3. Two immediate results of the fall of the Roman Empire were…?

  • Renewed interests in education and the arts

  • A period of economic disorder and weak central government

  • The growth of cities and emergence by the middle class

  • An increase in trade and improvements in manufacturing.


Checking for understanding now try answering some additional questions1

Checking for understanding…Now try answering some additional questions.

4. In Western Europe, which development was the cause of the other three?

  • Warfare disrupted trade throughout Europe

  • Travel became unsafe because of violence

  • Cities, towns, and villages were abandoned

  • The Roman Empire was invaded and collapsed.

5. In the Byzantine Empire, one important feature of life was the development of?

  • Eastern Orthodox Christianity

  • Social and political equality

  • Islam

  • Civil service examinations


Checking for understanding now try answering some additional questions2

Checking for understanding…Now try answering some additional questions.

6. Based on the information provided in this map, which statement about Constantinople is accurate?

  • Africans traded more goods in Constantinople than in any other area.

  • Constantinople was a city located directly on the Mediterranean Sea

  • Gold was the primary commodity that China sent to Constantinople

  • Constantinople was an important trading center


Checking for understanding now try answering some additional questions3

Checking for understanding…Now try answering some additional questions.

7. Which is the most valid generalization about the impact of the Crusades?

  • They strengthened the power of the serfs in Europe

  • They increased trade between neighboring countries

  • They brought European influence to Africa

  • They promoted the idea of religious freedom

8. What did the caste system in India and the feudal system in Europe have in common?

  • Encouragement of trade between neighboring countries

  • A strong emphasis on the acquisition of wealth

  • A strong belief in social equality

  • A division of society in hereditary social classes


Checking for understanding now try answering some additional questions4

Checking for understanding…Now try answering some additional questions.

9. Which statement best describes the role of the Roman Catholic Church in Western Europe during the Middle Ages?

  • The Church encouraged individuals to question authority

  • Church leaders were limited solely to spiritual activities

  • The Church gained influence as the world became more secular

  • The Church provided a sense of stability, unity, and order.

10. Which institution served as the main unifying force of medieval Western Europe?

  • Legislature

  • monarchy

  • church

  • Military


Checking for understanding now try answering some additional questions5

Checking for understanding…Now try answering some additional questions.

11. What was the primary characteristic of feudal society in medieval Europe?

  • A representative government

  • Economic equality for all

  • Protection for individual rights

  • An exchange of land for services

12. In Western Europe, feudalism developed after the…?

  • Turmoil of repeated invasions

  • Renaissance began

  • City of Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks

  • Mongols invaded


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