Chemicals

Chemicals PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Forms. Chemical health hazards may be divided into the following categories:Toxic, including carcinogenic;Corrosive

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Chemicals

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1. Chemicals

2. Forms Chemical health hazards may be divided into the following categories: Toxic, including carcinogenic; Corrosive & irritant; Dermatitic/sensitising

3. Forms Chemical hazards can also be classified according to physical state: Liquids (fluids) Dusts (solid particles) Fumes (fine solids, often metallic) Mists (finely suspended droplets) Vapours (gaseous form of a solid or liquid)

4. CHIP Classify substance (Approved supply list) Assign categories of danger & risk phrases Provide safety data sheet Label Safe packaging Child-resistant closures Tactile danger warnings Mention hazards in advertisements

5. Health Effects of Hazardous Substances Under CHIP, suppliers must classify dangerous chemicals under one or more of the following: Very toxic Toxic Harmful Corrosive Irritant Sensitising Carcinogenic Mutagenic Toxic for reproduction

6. Safety Data Sheets Composition and/or ingredients Hazards First aid Fire fighting Accidental release Handling & storage Exposure controls Personal protection Physical & chemical properties Stability & reactivity Toxicological info Ecological info Disposal Transport Regulatory & other info

7. Lead Most dangerous as a fume or dust Target organs: Central nervous system Gastrointestinal tract Blood & blood-forming organs Muscles of wrist or foot Gums Symptoms affect gastrointestinal tract, nervous system and blood

8. Mercury Target organs: Central nervous system & brain Kidneys Symptoms affect central nervous system with personality changes Workers at risk: Dentistry Thermometers, barometers, electrical switchgear

9. Benzene Volatile liquid absorbed by inhalation and skin contact Target organs: Central nervous system Blood-forming organs Symptoms are narcosis, anaemia and leukaemia

10. Phenol Corrosive & toxic substance absorbed by the skin Systemic toxin affecting central nervous system Symptoms affect central nervous system, liver and kidneys

11. Trichloroethylene Harmful by inhalation, prolonged skin contact & ingestion Affects central nervous system, skin and respiratory tract May be an animal carcinogen

12. Siliceous Dust Inhalation of dust causes fibrosis of lungs Symptoms caused by reduced lung function, breathlessness, heart strain and possibly death

13. Asbestos Inhalation of dust causes fibrosis of lungs Symptoms caused by reduced lung function, breathlessness, heart strain & possibly death Risk of lung cancer in fibrotic regions

14. Carbon Monoxide Invisible gas absorbed by lungs into blood stream, combining with haemoglobin and inhibiting oxygen transport Oxygen starvation causes loss of consciousness

15. Carcinogens Produce malignant tumours by affecting cell functioning Long latency period and no threshold of harm Examples: Tars (skin cancer) Asbestos (lung cancer & mesothelioma) Vinyl Chloride Monomer (angiosarcoma)

16. Corrosive Substances Acids destroy living tissue and cause severe burns; examples include nitric and sulphuric acid Ammonia is a corrosive alkaline gas, soluble in water, which can cause severe burns by liquid contact or inhalation

17. Dermatitic Hazards Dermatitis: non-infectious inflammatory condition of the skin caused by contact with chemical, physical or biological agents Classified into two forms: Contact: caused by contact with primary cutaneous irritants (greases, mineral oils, solvents); Sensitisation: Caused by cutaneous sensitisers (rubber additives, nickel compunds, hardwood dust)

18. Sensitisers Chemical agents able to produce an allergic reaction in certain individuals Production of antibodies triggers an allergic reaction each time person is subsequently exposed to very small quantities of the causative agent

19. Sensitisers Respiratory System: Results in asthma 2 principle types of agent: Antigens, such as flour, grain & shellfish protein Substances such as isocyanates and platinum salts Skin: Results in dermatitis Skin reaction will occur whenever there is further contact with sensitising agent (common sensitising agents are isocyanates)

20. Sensitisers Chemical agents able to produce an allergic reaction in certain individuals Production of antibodies triggers an allergic reaction each time person is subsequently exposed to very small quantities of the causative agent

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