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Taxonomy of Wood Products Solid Wood Products. Secondary Wood Products. WOOD. Furniture. Composites. Solid Wood. Pulp and Paper. Panels. Cabinets. Engineered Lumber Composites. Softwood Lumber. Glued. Treated. Hardwood. Pulp. Paper. Windows & Doors. Wood/Non-wood. Wood Based.

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Taxonomy of Wood Products Solid Wood Products

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Taxonomy of wood products solid wood products

Taxonomy of Wood ProductsSolid Wood Products


Wood products taxonomy

Secondary

Wood Products

WOOD

Furniture

Composites

Solid Wood

Pulp and Paper

Panels

Cabinets

Engineered

Lumber

Composites

Softwood

Lumber

Glued

Treated

Hardwood

Pulp

Paper

Windows & Doors

Wood/Non-wood

Wood Based

LVL

Boards

Finger joined

Mechanical

Millwork & Factory-built

Housing

Wood/Cement

Particleboard

OSL

Dimension

Edge glued

Chemical

Wood/Plastic

MDF

Glulam

Timber

Plywood

MSR

OSB

Wood Products Taxonomy

Engineered Wood

Products

I-Beams

Trusses

CLT


Wood products taxonomy1

Secondary

Wood Products

WOOD

Furniture

Composites

Solid Wood

Pulp and Paper

Panels

Cabinets

Engineered

Lumber

Composites

Softwood

Lumber

Glued

Treated

Hardwood

Pulp

Paper

Windows & Doors

Wood/Non-wood

Wood Based

LVL

Boards

Finger joined

Mechanical

Millwork & Factory-built

Housing

Wood/Cement

Particleboard

OSL

Dimension

Edge glued

Chemical

Wood/Plastic

MDF

Glulam

Timber

Plywood

MSR

OSB

Wood Products Taxonomy

Engineered Wood

Products

I-Beams

Trusses

CLT


Dimension lumber

Dimension Lumber

  • “2 by 4”, “2 by 6”, “2 by 8” construction lumber

  •  Majority of lumber produced in North America

  •  Production grew approx. 1.4% p.a. from 1985-2005

  • Bulk commodity product with little specialization

  • Used mainly in residential construction


Dimension lumber sizes

Dimension lumber - sizes

4.0”

3.7”

3.5”

2.0”

1.5”

1.7”

Rough sawnAfter dryingAfter planing(“nominal” size)(actual size)

“Two by four”


Dimension lumber sizes1

Dimension Lumber - sizes

  • Thickness– increments of 2 inches

  • Width– increments of 2 inches

  • Length– increments of 2 feet

Softwood lumber pricing (US$/MBF)

Premiums for larger cross-section dimensions and lengths.


Dimension lumber1

Dimension Lumber


Dimension lumber2

Dimension Lumber

  • Majority of production sold in US

  • SPF species group (Spruce - Pine – Fir)


Softwood boards

Softwood Boards

BC Wood Specialties

  •  Non-structural, finished product

  • 1” thick material, 2” width increments, 2’ length increments

  •  Markets are: export, industrial, home centres


Softwood boards1

Softwood boards

Canadian softwood board species

Wall panelling


Softwood boards2

Softwood boards

Furniture

Decorative panelling


Timber

Timber

  • Minimum dimensions 5.5”

  • High value product

  • Majority goes to export markets

  •  Production is decreasing


Taxonomy of wood products solid wood products

Timber

  • Post and beam construction

  • Architectural value as well as structural role

  • Higher value product than smaller dimensions ($/m3)


Taxonomy of wood products solid wood products

Timber

Danzaland, Flickr 100_9859, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

http://www.flickr.com/photos/monahan/3083747492/


Solid softwood lumber species

Solid softwood lumber – species

BoardsDimension lumberTimberSpruceSPFDouglas-firDouglas-firDouglas-firHemlockPinesHemlockHemlockCedars


Machine stress rated lumber

Machine Stress Rated Lumber

  • Lumber is graded by machine rather than manually

  • Uses non-destructive measurement of stiffness to predict strength of lumber pieces

  •  Structural end-uses

  •  Value-added lumber product

  •  Trusses are large market


Bending test

Bending test

Maximum load

Modulus of Rupture

MOR“strength”

Load

Linear portion of curve

Modulus of Elasticity

MOE“stiffness”

Deflection


Moe mor relationship

MOE – MOR relationship

MOR predicted

x

x

x

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x

x

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x

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x

x

x

x

x

MOR

“strength”

x

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MOE measured

x

x

x

x

x

MOE

“stiffness”


Machine stress rated lumber1

Machine Stress Rated Lumber

Sensor

Rollers

Load cell

Lumber


Msr lumber in roof trusses

MSR lumber in roof trusses


Wood products taxonomy2

Secondary

Wood Products

WOOD

Furniture

Composites

Solid Wood

Pulp and Paper

Panels

Cabinets

Engineered

Lumber

Composites

Softwood

Lumber

Glued

Treated

Hardwood

Pulp

Paper

Windows & Doors

Wood/Non-wood

Wood Based

LVL

Boards

Finger joined

Mechanical

Millwork & Factory-built

Housing

Wood/Cement

Particleboard

OSL

Dimension

Edge glued

Chemical

Wood/Plastic

MDF

Glulam

Timber

Plywood

MSR

OSB

Wood Products Taxonomy

Engineered Wood

Products

I-Beams

Trusses

CLT


Short lengths longer lengths

Short lengths Longer lengths

e.g. dimension lumber trim ends


Removal of defects

Removal of defects

defect, e.g. knots

Butt joint (end grain)


Finger joined lumber

Finger Joined Lumber

  • Longer lengths produced from shorter stock

  • Allow defects to be reduced

  • End-to-end joints via side-grain gluing


Finger jointed lumber

Finger Jointed Lumber

www.ufpi.com

BC Wood Specialties

  •  Structural or non-structural joints can be made

  • Longer fingers → greater strengths

  • Increased dimensional stability in resulting piece

  •  Utilized in lumber, glulam, I-beams


Finger joints

Finger joints

Narrower edge

Wider face


Dimensional stability of finger joined lumber

Dimensional stability of finger joined lumber

Warping tendency of any one piece is randomized in its location in finger-joined lumber and resulting piece is more dimensionally stable.


Edge glued panels

Edge-glued Panels

 Edge-lamination of wood

 Greater widths from narrow material

 Dimensionally stable-panel produced

 Industrial and finished retail products


Wood dryng defects

Wood dryng defects

T

  • Tangential shrinkage > Radial shrinkage

  • Natural tendency to “cup”

  • Cupping is greater in wider pieces of wood

R

R

T


Dimensional stability of edge glued panels

Dimensional stability of edge-glued panels

Randomization of end grain patterns

Less likely to cup


Edge glued panels1

Edge-glued panels


Wood products taxonomy3

Secondary

Wood Products

WOOD

Furniture

Composites

Solid Wood

Pulp and Paper

Panels

Cabinets

Engineered

Lumber

Composites

Softwood

Lumber

Glued

Treated

Hardwood

Pulp

Paper

Windows & Doors

Wood/Non-wood

Wood Based

LVL

Boards

Finger joined

Mechanical

Millwork & Factory-built

Housing

Wood/Cement

Particleboard

OSL

Dimension

Edge glued

Chemical

Wood/Plastic

MDF

Glulam

Timber

Plywood

MSR

OSB

Wood Products Taxonomy

Engineered Wood

Products

I-Beams

Trusses

CLT


Treated wood

Treated Wood

  • Preserves the wood against fungal degradation

  • For wood used in external conditions

  • Effectively poisons the wood

  • Chemical agent is either water-borne or oil-borne

  • Usually introduced into wood using pressure treatment


Treated wood examples of preservatives

Treated WoodExamples of preservatives

  • Creosote

  • Pentachlorophenol (PCP)

  • Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)

  • Ammoniacal copper quaternary (ACQ)


Treated wood pressure treatment vessels

Treated WoodPressure treatment vessels


Treated wood examples of preservative use

Treated WoodExamples of preservative use

Creosote

Pentachlorophenol (PCP)


Treated wood examples of preservative use1

Treated WoodExamples of preservative use

CCA

ACQ


Pressure treated wood

Pressure-treated Wood

Non-incised lumber

Incised lumber

The retention of wood preservatives in wood species which do not readily abosrb the preservative chemical can be enhanced by incising the wood.


Wood products taxonomy4

Secondary

Wood Products

WOOD

Furniture

Composites

Solid Wood

Pulp and Paper

Panels

Cabinets

Engineered

Lumber

Composites

Softwood

Lumber

Glued

Treated

Hardwood

Pulp

Paper

Windows & Doors

Wood/Non-wood

Wood Based

LVL

Boards

Finger joined

Mechanical

Millwork & Factory-built

Housing

Wood/Cement

Particleboard

OSL

Dimension

Edge glued

Chemical

Wood/Plastic

MDF

Glulam

Timber

Plywood

MSR

OSB

Wood Products Taxonomy

Engineered Wood

Products

I-Beams

Trusses

CLT


Hardwood lumber

Hardwood Lumber

  • Visual appearance of lumber is key

  • Used for decorative and architectural purposes rather than structural products

  • Flooring, trim & molding, joinery, cabinets, furniture


Hardwood lumber1

Hardwood Lumber


Hardwood lumber2

Hardwood Lumber

Grading system based on cutting high quality boards from rough lumber.

  • Thickness– usually 1 inch (but also other thicknesses)

  • Width– random widths

  • Length– increments of 1 foot


Lumber grading softwood vs harwoods

Lumber GradingSoftwood vs. Harwoods


Lumber grading softwoods

Lumber Grading - softwoods

  • Softwood grading considers that the piece of lumber will be used as it stands and will not undergo subsequent reprocessing.

  • Therefore the greatest defect in the piece decides the grade of that piece of lumber.


Lumber grading harwoods

Lumber Grading - harwoods

  • Hardwood boards are graded on the amount of clear (defect-free) wood that can be obtained after the removal of defects.

  • The boards are either “ripped” along the grain, or “chopped” across the grain to produce smaller, clear pieces are called “cuttings”.

  • Cuttings are then used in the production of other items such as edge-glued panels or furniture.


Solid softwood lumber

Solid softwood lumber

Dimension Lumber

Timber

Boards

Machine Stress Rated Lumber


Other solid lumber products

Other solid lumber products

Edge-glued Panels

Finger Jointed lumber

Treated Wood

Hardwood


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