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What do you think this is? Uses?. What do you think this is? Uses? Child and Adult Shackles. Chapter 4 Kansas Territory. The Saga of Bleeding Kansas. Time: 1820-1861 People to Know: David Rice Atchison John Brown Ann Clark Stephen A. Douglas Samuel Jones James Lane Abraham Lincoln.

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What do you think this is uses child and adult shackles
What do you think this is? Uses?Child and Adult Shackles


Chapter 4 kansas territory

Chapter 4Kansas Territory

The Saga of Bleeding Kansas


About the chapter

  • Time: 1820-1861

  • People to Know:

    • David Rice Atchison

    • John Brown

    • Ann Clark

    • Stephen A. Douglas

    • Samuel Jones

    • James Lane

    • Abraham Lincoln

  • Clarina Nichols

  • Andrew H. Reeder

  • Charles Robinson

  • Charles Sumner

  • John Greenleaf

About the Chapter


About the chapter cont

Words to Understand

  • Abolitionist

  • Antislavery

  • Border ruffian

  • Bushwhacker

  • Demographic

  • Expansionist

  • Free-stater

  • Indentured servant

  • Jayhawker

  • Martyr

  • Popular sovereignty

  • Proslavery

  • Repeal

  • Siege

  • Servitude

  • Speculator

  • Transcontinental

  • Treason

  • Unconstitutional

About the Chapter Cont.


Back ground info

Back Ground Info


The missouri compromise

  • 22 states split evenly

  • Allowed for 2 more states

    • Maine- Free

    • Missouri- Slave

  • Banned slavery in the lands of the Louisiana Purchase north of 36,30’ north latitude

    • Includes Kansas

The Missouri Compromise


Compromise of 1850

  • Southern states were still not happy

  • California petitioned to be a free state which would trip the balance.

  • Compromise of 1850 was the answer

    • California admitted as a free state but the Fugitive Slave Act had to be admitted.

      • All citizens were required to assist in the recovery of runaway slaves, and fugitive slaves were denied the right of a jury trial

Compromise of 1850


The kansas nebraska act

The Kansas-Nebraska Act


Settling the territory

Settling the Territory


For or against

  • People were either proslavery and antislavery of the slavery issue

  • Those who believed that slavery was immoral and should be abolished without delay were abolitionist

    • Not all antislavery people were abolitionists, some people just did not want to see slavery expanded.

      • Those people were called free-staters

For or Against?


For or against cont

  • Most who came to settle in Kansas came from nearby states. of the slavery issue

  • Many came from Missouri

    • Proslavery leaders urged their people to settle Kansas to discourage the presence of a free state on the Missouri border

      • Proslavery groups founded Atchison and gained power in Leavenworth

      • Antislavery groups took over Leavenworth, founded Lawrence and Topeka.

For or Against? Cont.


Counting the people of the territory

  • Andrew H. Reeder of the slavery issue

    • 1st Territorial Governor

    • Ordered the 1st Kansas Census

      • Did not count soldiers unless they planned on settling in Kansas

      • Did not count Indians

  • 1st Federal Census

    • 1860

    • 107,209 people

    • 12% of population was foreign born most from British Isles or Germany

    • Only 2 slaves

    • 625 Free African Americans

    • 189 American Indians

    • Only 2 communities were called cities by U.S. government, Leavenworth and Atchison all others were too small

Counting the People of the Territory


How do we know this

  • U.S.. Government has gathered census data since 1790 of the slavery issue

    • Every decade

    • Count people and collect basic data about them

    • Info gathered gives us important demographic characteristics of the population

  • Knowing the number of people and where they live is a crucial part of our government

    • # of Representatives a state has

    • How resources are distributed

      • Ex: Federal funding for Education

  • Tells us where someone comes from

  • What type of work they did

  • When they were born

  • If a child attended school

  • Help to show how communities change over time.

How Do We Know This?


Why did they come

  • Most came for cheap land and economic opportunities of the slavery issue

  • Land could be obtained through the Preemption Act

    • An individual could claim up to 160 acres

    • Obligated to pay $1.25 per acre once a public land survey was complete

  • As towns developed, shares were sold to investors.

    • Some were settlers

    • Others were absentee speculators

    • All investors wanted a profit, although shares were sold for many towns not all grew.

  • Example p.76 Ellen Goodnow and husband brought 200 people to what is current day Manhattan.

    • Goodnow’s were motivated to end slavery, but not all settlers came for a cause

Why Did They Come


Proslavery voices

  • Wanted slavery in Kansas because of the economic opportunities and to preserve the southern way of life.

  • Envisioned a new territory where southern farmers could prosper

  • Felt if slavery were banned in Kansas this would threatened slavery in other parts of the country.

    • Specifically along the Kansas/Missouri border where 20% of the Missouri slaves were located.

Proslavery Voices


Antislavery voices

  • Antislavery forces wanted to take a stand in Kansas Territory

    • Antislavery forces came because:

      • Fight against slavery

      • Thought slavery was morally wrong

      • Believed it gave slaveholders an unfair economic advantage

  • Many thought proslavery South was moving the U.S. government toward legalizing slavery on a national level (thought supported by Dred Scott Case)

  • Women played a major role in the Antislavery movement.

    • 1830’s image on p.77 was used in needlework, publications, and on writing paper to promote the antislavery movement in America

Antislavery Voices


David rice atchison

  • U.S. senator from Missouri Territory

  • Lived close to the Kansas border

  • “The prosperity or the ruin of the whole South depends on the Kansas struggle.”

  • Encouraged Missourians to cross the border and illegally vote in Kansas elections to help sway the outcomes

  • Asked for money, moral support, and proslavery settlers to come to the Kansas Territory

David Rice Atchison


Dred scott

  • Slave who sued the government for his freedom. (1857) Territory

  • U.S. Supreme Court ruled that Scott and all African Americans, free or slave, were not citizens of the United States.

  • Supreme Court went farther to say it was unconstitutional for the U.S. government to prohibit slavery in the territories

Dred Scott


Emigrant aid societies

  • Some antislavery advocates came as individuals and others as groups

    • New England Emigrant Aid Company

      • Received both financial and moral support form prominent New England abolitionists

      • Placed ads in newspapers hoping to attract potential settlers to Kansas Territory

      • Settlers traveled in groups at a reduced rate

      • Groups as small as 8 and large as 389 came to Kansas with the Company’s help

      • Once in Kansas settlers were directed to available land

      • Money was raised to help settlers construct public buildings, like hotels and businesses.

      • Invested in newspapers to spread their cause

Emigrant Aid Societies


Lane s army of the north

  • James Lane groups

    • U.S. representative from Indiana

    • Voted for Kansas-Neb. Act

    • Moved to Kansas Territory and fought against slavery

    • Called slave owners “wolves, snakes, devils”

    • Organized 400 settlers from the north to come to the Kansas Territory.

      • Called Lane’s Army of the North

Lane’s Army of the North


Slavery in kansas

  • In the Kansas Territory slavery did occur but on a much smaller level than in the south

    • Most slave holders in KS had 1 or 2 slaves

    • Most slaves were women or children who preformed domestic duties not hard labor farming

  • Read the Note from Marcus Lindsay Freeman, a slave brought to KS when he was 59 years old. (p.80)

    • In his own words how can you tell that he was not treated like a free man?

Slavery in Kansas


Ann clark and the underground railroad

Ann Clark and the Underground Railroad


Bleeding kansas

Bleeding Kansas


Acts of wars

  • Killing of a free- periodstater started what became known as the “Wakarusa War”

    • Proslavery supporters arrested a man attending a free-slave meeting

    • Other free-slave supporters came to his rescue but the Sheriff of Douglas county Samuel Jones, southern sympathizer, deemed it a “lawless action”

    • This scarred people in Lawrence who prepared for an attack.

    • For a week Lawrence was under siege this became known as the Wakarusa War.

Acts of Wars


Acts of war cont

  • Wakarusa War period

    • Proslavery forces blocked supplies from reaching Lawrence.

    • One story has two woman making a daring attempt to bring ammo through the blockade by sewing it into their petticoats.

    • A big battle never came but the media ran wild with the story and exaggerated the Wakarusa War.

Acts of War Cont.


Acts of war cont1

  • Lawrence residents were very outspoken and the newspapers very critical of proslavery leaders

    • So the proslavery grand jury deemed these newspapers nuisances and Sheriff Jones entered the town with a group of armed men and attacked

    • Burned down two newspaper offices, Charles Robinson’s house and multiple businesses were destroyed

    • 2 people were killed and Sheriff Jones was quoted saying “This is the happiest day of my life, I assure you.”

  • All of this made Nat’l News.

Acts of War Cont.


Beecher bibles

  • Guns carried by proslavery forces were squirrel rifles, heavy buffalo guns, or army muskets.

  • Antislavery forces had access to superior Sharps carbine rifles

    • Called “Beecher Bibles”

      • Named for Henry Ward Beecher and abolitionist preacher from Connecticut

      • His followers founded the Beecher Bible and Rifle Colony.

      • Settlers brought both bibles and rifles to Kansas some rifles in boxes labeled “books” so as not to be detected

Beecher Bibles


The pottawatomie massacre

  • John Brown assaulted proslavery settlers after hearing the assault on Lawrence was over

    • 5 proslavery men were killed near the Pottawatomie creek in Franklin County

    • Caused many other skirmishes to occur

    • The last was 2 years later when 11 free-state supporters were kidnapped by a group of proslavery men. 5 were killed 5 wounded and 1 survived by pretending to be dead.

The Pottawatomie Massacre


John brown 1800 1859

  • Abolitionist assault on Lawrence was over

  • Deeply religious

  • Willing to use violence to end the shame of slavery immediately.

  • After the Pottawatomie Massacre he was a Nat’l figure

    • Also defended the town of Osawatomie when Missourians attacked it

  • Helped slaves escape before coming to Kansas

John Brown 1800-1859


John brown cont 1800 1859

  • Would ride in Missouri and attack proslavery farms assault on Lawrence was over

    • One time he siezed the property and freed 11 slaves

    • Traveled 82 days and over 1,000 miles to transport slaves the slaves to Canada

  • Raised money for guns

  • After he left Kansas he led a raid on the federal arsenal in Harpers Ferry, Virginia

    • Goal was to get weapons to arm slaves

    • Caught tried and convicted of teason

    • He was hung and became a martyr for the abolitionist cause

John Brown Cont.1800-1859


Politics

  • Politics in Kansas were chaotic assault on Lawrence was over

    • Election fraud was common

    • 10 different territorial governors served in 7 years

    • 4 different constitutions were written

    • At one point 2 separate governments were working at the same time

Politics


Election fraud

  • President Pierce appointed Andrew Reeder to be the 1 assault on Lawrence was overst Territorial Governor in Kansas

    • Reeder believed in popular sovereignty.

    • 1st Kansas Election- 1854

      • U.S. Delegate

      • John W. Whitfield elected

        • Proslavery

        • Believed majority of votes from Border Ruffians

    • 1st Legislative Election

      • More Border Ruffians

      • “Bogus Legislature”

Election Fraud


The first territorial legislature

  • Met in Pawnee assault on Lawrence was over

    • Why Pawnee

      • Far away from Missouri

      • Reeder was an investor

    • Capital Building

      • No roof, floor, windows, or doors

    • Most legislators stayed in tents

  • Reeder’s Goals

    • Establish counties

    • Setting up a judicial system

    • Levying taxes

    • Organizing a militia

  • Other Needs for the Legislator

    • Determine permanent seat of government

    • Create a constitution

    • Decide if Kansas is a free or slave state

The First Territorial Legislature


The first territorial legislature cont

  • Kansas Legislator assault on Lawrence was over

    • 4 days in Pawnee

      • Kicked out all the antislavery members

      • Government moved to Shawnee Mission

        • Closer to Missouri

        • Reeder removed by Pierce

      • Slave Code Passed

        • Illegal to speak against slavery in territory

        • Angered antislavery people

          • Started their own government

The First Territorial Legislature Cont.


Writing a constitution

  • To be a state assault on Lawrence was over

    • Constitution was needed

    • Constitution approved by U.S. Congress

  • Constitutional Conventions

    • Topeka

    • Lecompton

    • Leavenworth

    • Wyandotte

Writing a Constitution


The topeka constitution

  • A reaction to election fraud assault on Lawrence was over

    • 2 government

      • Free-state- Topeka

      • Proslavery- Shawnee Mission

  • Topeka Constitution

    • Who Voted?

      • White males

      • Civilized Indians who assimilated

    • Anti-slavery

    • African-Americans could not live in Kansas

  • Questions of Approval

    • 0 proslavery votes

    • legality

The Topeka Constitution


Lecompton constitution

  • Bogus Legislature assault on Lawrence was over

  • Written in Lecompton

  • Lecompton Constitution Vote

    • New free-state Legislature

    • Not allowed to vote for entire constitution

      • w/ or w/out slavery

    • Confusing Ballot

      • Outlawed slavery

      • Protected current slave owners

Lecompton Constitution


Lecompton constitution cont

  • Constitution Passed assault on Lawrence was over

    • Residents angered

    • Free-stater’s refused to vote

  • Another vote called

    • By Free-state Legislature

    • Defeated

  • James Buchanan

    • President of U.S.

    • Presented Constitution to Congress

    • Recommended slave state

  • Popular Sovereignty?

    • Congresses Question

      • Was Lecompton Constitution the will of the people in Kansas?

      • Sent back to Kansas

  • Defeated Vote Again

Lecompton Constitution Cont.


Leavenworth constitution

  • Antislavery assault on Lawrence was over

  • All men could vote

    • Eliminated word “white”

    • Included Indians

  • Constitution Passed

  • Failed in U.S. Congress

Leavenworth Constitution


The wyandotte constitution and statehood

  • Free state Constitution assault on Lawrence was over

  • Restrictions

    • Most voting rights

    • Militia service

  • Improved women’s rights

  • Slowed in U.S. Congress

    • Main Issue: Slavery

    • Southern Stated seceded

    • Kansas Admitted as Free state

The Wyandotte Constitution and Statehood


Charles robinson 1818 1894

  • Leader of the Free-state movement assault on Lawrence was over

  • Elected Governor after Topeka Constitution

    • Not recognized by slavery supporters

    • Arrested for treason and conspiracy

    • Jailed in Lecompton

    • Acquitted

  • Elected again after Wyandotte Constitution

  • 1st Governor of the State of Kansas

Charles Robinson1818-1894


The caning of senator charles sumner

  • Charles Sumner assault on Lawrence was over

    • Anti-slavery

    • Senator

    • Republican

    • “Crime Against Kansas”

      • Called out 2 Democratic Senators

        • Stephan Douglas

          • Called a “noise-some, squat, and nameless animal…not a proper model for an American senator.”

          • Kansas-Neb. Act

        • Andrew Butler

          • South Carolina

          • Proslavery

The Caning of Senator Charles Sumner


The caning of senator charles sumner cont

  • Rep. Preston Brooks assault on Lawrence was over

    • Remarks ungentlemanly

    • Unforgivable

    • From South Carolina

    • Brought a cane to Sumner’s Chambers and beat him unconscious

      • Sumner could not resume work for 3 years

The Caning of Senator Charles Sumner Cont.


Clarina nichols

  • Abolitionist assault on Lawrence was over

  • New England Emigrant Aid Society

  • Attended Wyandotte Constitutional Convention as a guest

  • Women’s rights

    • child custody

    • voice in education

    • property rights

Clarina Nichols


Everyday life in the territory

  • Poorer Quality of Life assault on Lawrence was over

  • Few Doc’s and dentists

  • Brutal winters

  • Severe droughts

  • P.93 read Thaddeus Hyatts comments to the President about the conditions in Kansas (Italicized section)

Everyday Life in the Territory


The pony express

  • 18 months assault on Lawrence was over

  • St. Joseph, Missouri and Sacramento, California

  • Relay fashion riding

    • 33 mile rides

    • Horses changed every 10-15 miles

  • Cost $5 (many earned less then a $1/day)

  • Transcontinental telegraph

The Pony Express


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