The importance of interactions in determining service measures for bicycles
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The importance of interactions in determining service measures for bicycles. Chris Osowski [email protected] – www.osowski.co.uk Institute for Complex Systems Science, University of Southampton

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The importance of interactions in determining service measures for bicycles

The importance of interactions in determining service measures for bicycles

Chris [email protected] – www.osowski.co.ukInstitute for Complex Systems Science, University of Southampton

Ben [email protected] Research Group, University of Southampton


Is this good
Is this good?

From: Warrington Cycle Campaign “Cycle Facility of the Month” (http://goo.gl/EiBnDv)


Are these value for money
Are these value for money?

From: Warrington Cycle Campaign “Cycle Facility of the Month” (http://goo.gl/EiBnDv)



Capacity of motor infrastructure
Capacity of Motor Infrastructure

From: Transportation Research Board. (2010). Highway Capacity Manual.


Capacity of motor infrastructure1
Capacity of Motor Infrastructure

From: www.flownz.com


Capacity of pedestrian infrastructure
Capacity of Pedestrian Infrastructure

From: Colin Buchanan Ltd. (2010)

From: Fruin, J. J. (1971). Pedestrian Planning and Design

From: Halcrow Group Ltd. (2005)


Capacity of cycle infrastructure
Capacity of CycleInfrastructure

From: Navin, F. P. D. (1994). Bicycle Traffic Flow Characteristics: Experimental Results and Comparisons. ITE Journal, (March), 31–36.


A quote from fruin
A Quote from Fruin…

“[...] many authorities are using maximum capacity ratings for dimensioning pedestrian space. No evaluation or consideration of human convenience has been made in developing these design standards. The flow curves [... demonstrate] that the maximum capacity of a pedestrian traffic scheme is attained only when there is a dense crowding of pedestrians.”

From: Fruin, J. J. (1971). Pedestrian Planning and Design


Capacity of cycle infrastructure1
Capacity of CycleInfrastructure


What about quality of service
What about Quality of Service?

  • Botma(1995) assumed no impedance; i.e. fixed speed.

  • Does this matter…?

  • Can we use simulation tools, take the best practice of the simulation of other modes and cross-apply itto find out?


Use pedestrian modelling
Use Pedestrian Modelling?

From: Colin Buchanan Ltd. (2010)

  • Often continuous space (2D) models.

  • Successful tools at variety of scales

    • Pedroute

    • Legion

    • VisWalk

From: Halcrow Group Ltd. (2005)


The social force model
The Social Force Model

  • Helbing, D., & Molnár, P. (1995). Social force model for pedestrian dynamics. Physical Review E, 51(5), 4282–4286.

  • “Motivation to act”


Our model purpose
Our Model – Purpose

  • Do interactions matter?

From: CXMagazine.com


Our model implementation
Our Model – Implementation

  • Agent Based Model

  • 2 dimensional continuous space

  • Unidirectional flow

  • Fixed path width

  • Parallel boundaries



Sfm directional perception
SFM – Directional Perception

  • In Helbing and Molnár (2005):



Sfm vs our model
SFM vs Our Model


Our model parameters and outputs
Our Model – Parameters and Outputs

  • Bicycle behavioural parameters:

    • Generally from CROW (2007)

  • Exploratory variables:

    • Path Width and Bicycle Arrival Rate

  • Output data:

    • Average speed, average crashing proportion, average distance to the nearest bicycle, etc.


Results speed vs flow
Results – Speed vs. Flow

High Quality

Poor Quality

Variable Quality


Results crashes
Results – Crashes

(No impedance)


Results crashes1
Results – Crashes

  • Flow breakdown with speed-selection occurs primarily as multi-bicycle collisions at the entry:

  • Without speed-selection:



Conclusions
Conclusions

  • Lack of robust quantitative measures for capacity or quality of service.

  • Inherent assumption that service quality is satisfactory up to capacity…

    …bicycles do not interact in a meaningful way.


Conclusions1
Conclusions

  • 2Dmicrosimulation model using the SFM.

  • Basic behavioural traits applied.

  • Data show qualitatively different result...

    …sudden collapse in quality of service.

  • Modellingconfirms intuition that we can’t ignore service quality for non-trivial flow rates.


Acknowledgements
Acknowledgements

  • EPSRC Doctoral Training Centre grant: EP/G03690X/1

  • University of Southampton:

    • Institute for Complex Systems Simulation

      www.icss.soton.ac.uk

    • Transportation Research Group

      www.trg.soton.ac.uk

    • IRIDIS High Performance Computing Facility

      (and support services)


Questions
Questions?

Paper at: https://db.tt/8APJ8Vrk



Our model algorithm
Our Model – Algorithm




Barriers to cycling1
Barriers to Cycling

From: City of Copenhagen. (2011). Copenhagen: City of Cyclists - Bicycle Account 2010.


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