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Community Policing and Customer Care for Tanzania Police Force . 2-6/11/09 ESAMI BY GEORGE KAINJA SACP O/C COMMUNITY POLICING SERVICES BRANCH MALAWI POLICE SERVICE. Community Policing at work in Malawi. Community Policing at work in Malawi. SCOPE. Introduction

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Community policing and customer care for tanzania police force l.jpg

Community Policing and Customer Care for Tanzania Police Force

2-6/11/09

ESAMI

BY

GEORGE KAINJA SACP

O/C COMMUNITY POLICING SERVICES BRANCH

MALAWI POLICE SERVICE


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Community Policing at work in Malawi


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Community Policing at work in Malawi


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SCOPE

  • Introduction

  • What is Community Policing (cp)

  • Understanding the Community

  • Community Policing versus Community Police

  • The key principles and practices of community Policing


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SCOPE Continued..

  • Rationale for Community Policing

  • Implementation of Community Policing

  • The Malawi Model of CP

  • Advantages of cp


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OBJECTIVES

  • To define community policing

  • Explain the Rationale for Community Policing

  • To share the key principles and practices f community Policing

  • To discuss models of policing that forms the foundation of community Policing.


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Objectives Continued…

  • To discuss community policing as compared to community Police

  • Discuss the implementation of Community Policing

  • Discuss the Malawi Model of Community Policing ( as compared to Tanzania Model)

  • List the advantages of Community Poling


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Introduction and Ground Setting

  • What is the Mission of TPF?

  • What is the Vision of the TPF?

  • What are the key objectives of the TPF?

  • What are the key pillars of the TPF?

  • The TPF model of Community Policing-Concept, Rationale, implementation and challenges


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WHAT IS COMMUNITY POLICING?

  • This is a philosophy that recognizes the interdependence and shared responsibility of the police and the community

  • Aims at establishing active and equal partnership between the police and the public


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COMMUNITY POLICING cont…

  • This is a management style or organizational strategy that promotes pro-active problem solving and police – community partnership


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POLICING CONCEPTS

  • There are two policing concepts related to Community Policing, namely:

  • Problem Oriented Policing

  • Crime Prevention


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PROBLEM ORIENTED POLICING

  • This is a style of policing which emphasizes use of problem solving techniques as a basis for more effective police response to repetitive crime related problems

  • This is a method aiming at involving the community in solving crime related issues


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CRIME PREVENTION

  • This is a pattern of attitudes and behaviors influencing action directed at reducing the threat of crime and enhancing the sense of safety


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FIVE FACTORS JUSTIFYING THE LINKAGES BETWEEN THE TWO CONCEPTS

  • Crime prevention and community policing share a common purpose of making the public safer and communities healthier

  • Crime prevention offers information and skills that are essential to community policing

  • Crime prevention and community policing have great potential for enriching each other


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FIVE FACTORS cont….

  • Crime prevention responsibilities maybe located within the police station

  • Thoughtful planned actions that carefully nurture a core of crime can substantially benefit the transition to community policing


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PRINCIPLES OF CRIME PREVENTION

  • Everyone’s business

  • More than security

  • A responsibility of all levels of Government

  • Linked with solving social problems

  • Cost effective

  • A central position in law enforcement


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PRINCIPLES OF CRIME PREVENTION cont…..

  • Active co-operation among all elements of the community

  • Education

  • Tailoring local needs and conditions

  • Continual monitoring and evaluation in order to achieve better results

  • The quality of life for every community member


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THE DIFFERENCE IN METHODOLOGY BETWEEN PROBLEM ORIENTED POLICING AND CRIME PREVENTION

  • Problem – oriented policing requires a comprehensive and in-depth analysis of the nature, causes and symptoms of a particular problem.

  • Problem-oriented policing specifically seeks to address the cause of a particular problem while traditional crime prevention has a more superficial focus


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DIFFERENCES IN METHODOLOGY cont….

  • Problem-oriented policing seeks to develop problem-specific solutions in contrast with the traditional approach towards crime prevention

  • Problem-oriented policing emphasizes the importance o solutions which consist of short, medium and long term initiatives


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DIFFERENCES IN METHODOLOGY cont….

  • Problem-oriented policing often has a broader vision with regard to the instruments that can be used to solve problems

  • Problem-oriented policing places emphasis on the quality of solutions as opposed to the quantity of programs being implemented


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RATIONALE FOR COMMUNITY POLICING

  • Police are dependent on citizens to report crime

  • To provide information that identifies suspects

  • To provide testimony that results in convictions


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CHALLENGES IN THE PROVISION OF TRADITIONAL POLICE SERVICES

  • A growing demand for more responsive and customer oriented policing

  • A socio-economic environment which is conducive to crime

  • A greater demand for greater police accountability


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CHALLENGES cont….

  • Existence of unrealistic expectations on the part of communities regarding the effectiveness of traditional police response such as rapid response to calls, patrols etc

  • Growing shortcomings of the traditional policing approaches in providing long term answers to crime an problems of disorder


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CHALLENGES cont…..

  • The growing realization by the police that they can neither have enough money, human resources, better technology nor more authority to enable them to shoulder the heavy burden of crime

  • The growing trend of democratization where the police personnel want actively participate in determining and managing their future


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THE KEY PRINCIPLES OF CP

  • The five eggs model

    1.Partnership

    2.Mobilization

    3.Participation

    4.Accountability

    5.Local Democratic Policing


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KEY PRINCIPLES OF CP Cont..

  • The role of the police officer becomes that of a peace officer rather than that of a law enforcement officer involved solely in crime control

  • Community policing involves a proactive approach to law enforcement and maintenance of public order

  • Community policing follows a more problem-oriented approach


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PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNITY POLICING cont….

  • Community policing requires a broader police response to underlying causes of problems

  • Community policing requires community partnership

  • Police officers must become information managers


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PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNITY POLICING cont….

  • Police officers must provide leadership at the community level on issues pertaining to crime prevention and public safety

  • Community policing requires knowledge of available community resources and how to access and mobilize them and ability to develop new resources within the community


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PRINCPLES OF COMMUNITY POLICING cont….

  • Community policing recognizes the need for decent realization of the management of services and operations to front line officers

  • Community policing demands the relaxation of the traditional paramilitary structure and culture of police services to more open, creative, innovative and participatory working environment


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PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNITY POLICING cont….

  • The police service needs to deliver a user friendly and customer oriented service to its clients

  • Community policing requires shared ownership, shared decision-making and accountability

  • Community policing requires constant flexibility to respond to emerging issues


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PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNITY POLICING cont…

  • Community policing requires commitment to developing new skills through training

  • Community policing requires monitoring and regular evaluation in order to improve practice and achieve good results


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UNDERSTANDING THE COMMUNITY

  • Community refers to a group of people who share common culture, values, interests and aspirations and live in a particular geographical locality.

  • There are two types of communities: rural and urban


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UNDERSTANDING THE COMMUNITY cont…

  • Analysis of community in terms of urban and rural is important because each requires particular strategies and tactics for creating effective partnership and for exchanging vital information in order for the police to render a broad range of services


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A RURAL COMMUNITY

  • A group of people who live in villages or the country side. They earn their living from the land

  • A rural community is quite small does not have more than 200 people.

  • Rural communities are usually poorer than urban communities because many are unemployed or self-employed or employed in low paying jobs


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RURAL COMMUNITY cont…

  • Nearly all households in rural communities do not have electricity, water closet toilets and tapped water they rely on communal tapped water or boreholes or rivers/lakes


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AN URBAN COMMUNITY

  • It is not as closely knit as a rural community

  • Although people are crowded next to each other, their lives are not closely bund together

  • People have a weak sense of belonging and have very little obligation to support each other


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URBAN COMMUNITY cont….

  • Unlike in rural communities, people in urban communities are not bound together by traditional power structures


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IMPLEMENTING COMMUNITY POLICING

  • There are several approaches to the implementation of Cp and most of them are situational in nature.

  • Most importantly the approach must be tailor made to answer the needs and expectations of a particular country/police organization/ region/ district etc


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Key Considerations in implementing Cp

  • Identification and training of resource persons/facilitators/coordinators

  • Cp Policy/Guidelines

  • Institutional implementation structure

  • Police officers training and sensitization


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Key Considerations in implementing CP Continued..

  • Community training and sensitization

  • Setting up of Cp Structures

  • Identification and engagement of cooperating partners ( for support)

  • Monitoring and evaluation


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MALAWI MODEL OF CP

  • In Malawi community policing is managed and coordinated at the National Police Headquarters in Lilongwe

  • At each of the four police regions there is a Regional Coordinator

  • At district level, there is a Station Coordinator


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COMMUNITY POLICING STRUCTURE

CPSB

HEADQUARTERS

REGIONAL

COORDINATOR

STATION

COORDINATOR

Schools outreach

And

Youth involvement

Child protection

Victim Support

Services

Social crime

Prevention and

Reduction

Community

Safety and

partnership

Information

Good practice

Database


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SUPERVISOR AND LEADERSHIP ROLES IN CP

  • Leadership very key to community policing success

  • In fact Leadership is one of the Key determinants of Cp Success

  • Community Policing leadership must be at all levels of Policing- Top down to the bottom


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THE KEY DETERMINATS OF CP

  • Studies on Community Policing in Malawi

    shows that there are four key determinants of Community Policing Success as follows: (1)Top Management Leadership, (2)Region/Station Management Leadership, (3)Community Policing Coordinators/Police officers Motivation and Commitment (4)CPF/Community Motivation,


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Supervisory and Leadership Roles of Police officers in general

  • Observation of human rights and humanitarian law

  • Initiating and sustaining partnership

  • Guiding the community on safety and security issues

  • Policing according to community needs

  • Supervising safety and security initiatives


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Supervisory and Leadership Roles cont….

  • Identifying and solving community problems in consultation with communities

  • Providing safety and security sensitization

  • Designing crime prevention strategies in consultation with the public

  • Reassuring victims of crime

  • Train members of the public on basic security laws, good policing practices, child protection and victim support services


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ROLES OF REGIONAL COORDINATORS

  • Represent the Regional Commissioner at all community policing oriented forums

  • Provide constant feedback to the regional commissioners, steering committee, regional management team, regional executive forum and regional executive committee


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ROLES OF REGIONAL COORDINATORS cont….

  • Source any information on community policing as may be required by management and stakeholders

  • Develop relations with other regions and regional bodies by sharing common goals

  • Prepare work plans of the region on monthly and annual basis


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ROLES cont….

  • Submit monthly and annual reports

  • Monitor and evaluate the implementation of regional and stations community policing action plans

  • Provide guidance to all station coordinators


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ROLES cont….

  • Assist in the dissemination of human rights friendly practices

  • Ensure that there is adequate involvement of all police officers and members of the community in the development and implementation of community policing plans


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ROLES OF STATION COORDINATRS

  • Assist in the dissemination of human rights friendly practices to police officers and members of the public

  • Represent the officer in-charge at all community policing activities

  • Provide constant feedback to the officer in-charge, station steering committee, station executive committee and station executive forum


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ROLES OF STATION COORDINATORS cont….

  • Develop relations with other stations and the region

  • Prepare monthly and annual work plan for the station

  • Supervise, monitor and evaluate all community policing initiatives and programs for the district


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ROLES OF STATION COORDINATORS cont….

  • Provide feedback support to activities of existing committees

  • Ensure full involvement of all police officers and stakeholders in community policing activities


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COMMUNITY POLICING EXECUTIVE FORUMS

  • Play an important role in community policing

  • They are established at national, regional, station and community levels with clear vertical linkages


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COMMUNITY POLICING EXECUTIVE FORUM STRUCTURES

National Executive

Forum

Draws all stakeholders at national level

And representatives of REF/REC

Draws all stakeholders at regional level

And representatives of all stations in the

Region

Regional Executive

Forum

Station Executive

Forum

Draws all district stakeholders

Draws all stakeholders at Traditional

Authority level

Community police

Forum


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EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE STRUCTURE FOR COMMUNITY POLICING

National executive

committee

Administers safety and

Security at national level

  • Each committee

  • Comprises:

  • Chairperson

  • Vice

  • Secretary

  • Vice secretary

  • Treasurer

  • Committee

  • members

Regional executive

Committee

Manages safety and security

At regional level

Station executive

Committee

Manages safety and security

Structures at district level

CPF executive

Committee

Manages a community

police

Manages safety and security

In CPPs at GVH

CPP executive

Committee

Manages safety and security

In CPCs at village level

CPC


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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THEEXECUTIVE FORUMS AND EXECUTIVE COMMITTEES

Event

Publicity and civic education

VSU

Chairperson

Vice chairperson

Secretary

Vice secretary

Treasurer

Executive

Committee

Executive Forum

Finance fund raising

Legal and

constitutional

Youth and schools


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ROLES OF COMMUNITY POLICE FORUM (CPF)

  • Identify local crime problems

  • Develop local crime prevention initiatives

  • Establish community self-help spirit where residents contribute towards the protection of each other’s life and property

  • Enhance working relationship between the police and the communities


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ROLES OF CPF cont…

  • Collect relevant information on crime trend and crime analysis

  • Conduct community awareness on crime prevention methods

  • Supervise the CPPs and CPCs

  • Hold monthly meetings that help evaluate and monitor progress


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ROLES OF CPF cont…

  • Lobby for communities of interest in the safety and security of the locality

  • Consult on standards/constitution that could be adhered by the communities


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STEPS FOR DEVELOPING A CPF OPERATIONAL PLAN

  • Compile a comprehensive community profile by conducting a community needs analysis or audit

  • Consult the community on their basic policing needs and crime-related problems

  • Consult the community to determine safety and community policing priorities


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OPERATIONAL PLAN DEVELOPMENT STEPS cont…

  • Introduce problem-solving techniques in order to find the best possible solution to these needs and problems

  • Develop a comprehensive operational plan to address all identified priorities in an effective and efficient manner


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MECHANISMS THAT CAN BE USED TO PROMOTE POLICE TRANSPARENCY

  • Establish the lay visitor’s scheme

  • Organizing open days at the police station

  • Making crime statistics and other information available to CPF and the wider community

  • Enhancing he work of the public relations committee at the police station


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MECHANISMS THAT CAN BE USED TO PROMOTE POLICE TRANSPARENCY cont…

  • Establishing more direct channels of communication between the community and the management at the station

  • Inviting members of CPF to address personnel during lectures/seminars

  • Inviting members of the neighborhood watch scheme and other community members to join police patrols


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COMPLAINTS AGAINST THE POLICE

  • The Community Police Forum can play a role in dealing with complaints against the police

  • The CPF can serve as a local complaints centre where members of the community can lodge complaints against the police

  • CPF should report any serious complain to relevant independent body set up for such a purpose by Government


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SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES OF NEIGHBORHOOD WATCH SCHEMES

  • Reducing crime by deterring would-be offenders from perpetrating their acts

  • Mobilizing members of the community to work in partnership with the police


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To achieve the overall objective of Neighborhood watch the following should be done

  • Identification of residents willing to participate in the scheme

  • Training f residents in crime prevention techniques

  • Teaching residents the proper procedure of reporting crime and suspicious activities


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To achieve the overall objective of Neighborhood watch the following should be done cont…

  • Establishing a forum through which to communicate neighborhood problems to the police and residents

  • Appointment of a co-coordinator to be the liaison between the community and the police

  • Identification of support activities residents would be willing to perform


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ADVANTAGES OF NEIGHBORHOOD WATCHSCHEMES

  • Better community spirit can be created

  • They lead to a greater shared awareness of the problems that a community faces

  • Local crime can be reduced


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LAY VISITORS’ SCHEMES

  • Schemes established by the Ministry of Home Affairs to allow accredited members of the community to visit police stations

  • Visit police cells in order to monitor the treatment of police suspects and accused persons in custody

  • They provide an independent check on the way police officers carry out their duties


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ROLES AND FUNCTIONS OF VICTIM SUPPORT UNIT

  • Provision of a room for victims of crime to be interviewed in private

  • Provision of counseling services

  • Acting as a referral centre

  • Provision of first aid services to all victims of crime


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ROLES AND FUNCTIONS OF VICTIM SUPPORT UNIT cont…

  • Giving temporary shelter and protection to vulnerable persons

  • Providing follow up and feedback to all cases that are reported at the unit


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ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE COMMUNITY

  • Giving information about safety and security to police

  • Sharing and supporting the police with safety and security resources

  • Voluntary participation in community based policing

  • Monitoring police performance


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ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE COMMUNITY cont…

  • Providing assistance to victims of crime

  • Knowing their rights and obligation

  • Initiating crime prevention programs n consultation with the police

  • Consulting the police for guidance on safety and security

  • Effecting informal arrests


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ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE COMMUNITY cont…

  • Advise and provide constructive criticism to the police service

  • Provide civic education to fellow members of the general public on gender and domestic violence

  • Monitoring the work of the police and its use of resources


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ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF TRADITIONAL LEADERS

  • Sensitizing communities on safety and security

  • Assisting police to establish safety and security committees in the communities

  • Giving information about crime and criminality to police

  • Voluntary participation in community based policing


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ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF TRADITIONAL LEADERS cont.

  • Monitoring and evaluating community policing in their localities

  • Giving advice to stakeholders in their localities

  • Giving assistance to victims of crime

  • Consulting police for professional advice


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ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF YOUTH IN CP

  • Sensitizing others on the benefits of community policing

  • Advocating and lobbying for best practices in community policing

  • Planning and implementing civic education activities


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ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF YOUTH IN CP cont…

  • Monitoring and evaluating community policing activities, and safety and security concerns in their areas

  • Acting as role models on issues relating to safety and security


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BENEFITS OF COMMUNITY POLICING

  • Development of an understanding of how the police work

  • Shared responsibility and involvement of all of all stakeholders in the community

  • Identifying and solving crime related problems of a specific community in partnership with the police


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BENEFITS OF COMMUNITY POLICING cont….

  • Reduction and prevention of crime

  • Creating strong relationship between the police and the community

  • Help to pool resources and ideas for crime prevention

  • Bringing about positive changes in the police service such as accountability, transparency, accessibility etc..


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