Chapter 9 notes
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 34

Chapter 9 Notes PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 69 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Chapter 9 Notes. Cellular Respiration. 9-1 Chemical Pathways. All living organisms need food to survive. Food provides living things with the chemical building blocks they need to grow and reproduce. 9-1 Chemical Pathways. 1 gram of glucose releases 3811 calories of heat energy

Download Presentation

Chapter 9 Notes

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Chapter 9 notes

Chapter 9 Notes

Cellular Respiration


9 1 chemical pathways

9-1 Chemical Pathways

All living organisms need food to survive.

Food provides living things with the chemical building blocks they need to grow and reproduce.


9 1 chemical pathways1

9-1 Chemical Pathways

1 gram of glucose releases 3811 calories of heat energy

Calorie (c): the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 Celsius degree

The calories on food labels (C) are kilocalories or 1000 calories


9 1 chemical pathways2

9-1 Chemical Pathways

Cells gradually release energy from glucose and other food compounds.

Cellular respiration is the process that releases energy by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen.

- 3 parts: glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain


Chapter 9 notes

Electrons carried in NADH

Pyruvic acid

Electrons carried in NADH and FADH2

Glucose

Glycolysis

KrebsCycle

Electron Transport Chain

Cytoplasm

Mitochondrion


9 1 chemical pathways3

9-1 Chemical Pathways

Equation for Cellular Respiration

6O2 + C6H12O6 6CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy

oxygen+glucose carbon+water+energy

dioxide


9 1 chemical pathways4

9-1 Chemical Pathways

Glucose

Krebs cycle

Electrontransport

Glycolysis

Alcohol or lactic acid

Fermentation (without oxygen)


9 1 chemical pathways5

9-1 Chemical Pathways

The first set of chemical reactions in cellular respiration is glycolysis.

Glycolysis is the process in which one molecule of glucose is broken in half, producing two molecules of pyruvic acid, a 3-carbon compound


9 1 chemical pathways6

9-1 Chemical Pathways

Net results of glycolysis

- 2 molecules of ATP are gained

- 2 molecules of NADH are gained

- 2 molecules of pyruvic acid (3C) are formed from 1 glucose molecule


9 1 chemical pathways7

9-1 Chemical Pathways

4 ADP

2 ATP

2 ADP

4 ATP

Glucose

2 Pyruvic

acid


9 1 chemical pathways8

9-1 Chemical Pathways

When oxygen is present in the cell, glycolysis is followed by the Krebs cycle.

If there is no oxygen present, glycolysis is followed by fermentation.

Fermentation releases energy from food molecules in the absence of oxygen


9 1 chemical pathways9

9-1 Chemical Pathways

Because fermentation does not require oxygen it is said to be anaerobic.

The two main types of fermentation are alcoholic fermentation and lactic acid fermentation


9 1 chemical pathways10

9-1 Chemical Pathways


9 1 chemical pathways11

9-1 Chemical Pathways


9 1 chemical pathways12

9-1 Chemical Pathways

Alcoholic fermentation is used mainly by plants and yeasts

- alcohol is the product

Lactic acid fermentation occurs in muscle cells when the body cannot supply enough oxygen to the tissues

- lactic acid is the product


Section quiz

Section Quiz

The raw materials required for cellular respiration are

  • carbon dioxide and oxygen.

  • glucose and water.

  • glucose and oxygen.

  • carbon dioxide and water.


Section quiz1

Section Quiz

Glycolysis occurs in the

  • mitochondria.

  • cytoplasm.

  • nucleus.

  • chloroplasts.


Section quiz2

Section Quiz

The net gain of ATP molecules after glycolysis is

  • 3 ATP molecules.

  • 2 ATP molecules.

  • 3 pyruvic acid molecules.

  • 4 pyruvic acid molecules


Section quiz3

Section Quiz

Fermentation releases energy from food molecules in the absence of

  • oxygen.

  • glucose.

  • NADH.

  • alcohol.


Section quiz4

Section Quiz

The first step in fermentation is always

  • lactic acid production.

  • the Krebs cycle.

  • glycolysis.

  • alcohol production.


9 2 the krebs cycle and electron transport

9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport

Oxygen is used for the final steps of cellular respiration. Because the pathway requires oxygen, it is said to be aerobic.

In the presence of O2, pyruvic acid passes on to the second stage of cellular respiration, the Krebs cycle


9 2 the krebs cycle and electron transport1

9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport

During the Krebs cycle, pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions

Net result of the Krebs cycle

- 2 molecules of pyruvic acid enter

- 8 molecules of NADH are gained

- 2 molecules of FADH2 are gained

- 2 molecules of ATP are gained


Chapter 9 notes

Mitochondrion

Citric Acid Production


9 2 the krebs cycle and electron transport2

9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport

From glycolysis and the Krebs cycle high energy electron carriers, NADH and FADH2, are produced. The electrons are then passed to the electron transport chain.

The electron transport chain uses high energy electrons to convert ADP to ATP.

ETC Movie pt 1

ETC Movie pt 2


9 2 the krebs cycle and electron transport3

9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport


9 2 the krebs cycle and electron transport4

9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport


9 2 the krebs cycle and electron transport5

9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport


9 2 the krebs cycle and electron transport6

9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport

ATP synthase


9 2 the krebs cycle and electron transport7

9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport

Channel

ATP synthase

ATP


9 2 the krebs cycle and electron transport8

9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport

Each NADH make 3 ATP while each FADH2 makes 2 ATP

1 glucose molecule can then make 38 total ATP ( 4 ATP, 10 NADH  30 ATP, 2 FADH2  4 ATP)

Cellular Respiration Animation


Section quiz5

Section Quiz

The Krebs cycle breaks pyruvic acid down into

  • oxygen.

  • NADH.

  • carbon dioxide.

  • alcohol.


Section quiz6

Section Quiz

In eukaryotes, the electron transport chain is located in the

  • cell membrane.

  • inner mitochondrial membrane.

  • cytoplasm.

  • outer mitochondrial membrane.


Section quiz7

Section Quiz

To generate energy over long periods, the body must use

  • stored ATP.

  • lactic acid fermentation.

  • cellular respiration.

  • glycolysis.


Section quiz8

Section Quiz

Which statement correctly describes photosynthesis and cellular respiration?

  • Photosynthesis releases energy, while cellular respiration stores energy.

  • Photosynthesis and cellular respiration use the same raw materials.

  • Cellular respiration releases energy, while photosynthesis stores energy.

  • Cellular respiration and photosynthesis produce the same products.


  • Login