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Zoology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Zoology. An Introduction. Zoology. Study of animals In this class- Important Kingdoms- Protista - some, unicellular, animal-like organisms(protozoans) considered to be evol . precursors to animals ANIMALIA - are ANIMALS Latin “ zoa ” or “ zo ”- means animal. Kingdom Protista.

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An Introduction


  • Study of animals

  • In this class- Important Kingdoms-

    Protista- some, unicellular, animal-like organisms(protozoans)

    considered to be evol. precursors to animals


  • Latin “zoa” or “zo”- means animal

Kingdom Protista

  • Single celled

  • Eukaryotic

  • Ingest or produce food

  • Some animallike

What is an Animal?

Are members of Kingdom Animalia

Are multicellular

Are Eukaryotic

Are Heterotrophs

Lack cell walls

Usually have a method of


Most reproduce sexually

Require oxygen

What is an Animal?

Multicellular: Having more than one cell

Eukaryotic: Organisms whose cell

contain a nucleus

Heterotroph: Organisms that obtains

energy from the foods it consumes; also

called a consumer.

2 Types of Animals

Invertebrates: Animals that do not

have a backbone or a vertebral column

Vertebrates: Animals that has a

vertebral column, or backbone

What Animals Do to Survive

Animals carry out the following essential functions:

1. Feed

2. Respire

3. Circulation

4. Excrete

5. Respond

6. Move

7. Reproduce

Essential Functions

Respiration: Whether they live in water or on land, all animals respire, which means they take in oxygen and give off carbon dioxide.

Some can rely on diffusion of these substances through their skin

Most have evolved complex tissues and organ systems for respiration

Essential Functions

Circulation: transport of nutrients and wastes

Many aquatic animals (ex: aquatic worms) rely solely on diffusion to transport oxygen & waste.

Larger animals have some kind of circulatory system to move materials around within their bodies.

Essential Functions

Excretion: releasing wastes

A buildup of ammonia & other nitrogenous wastes would kill an animal

Animals have excretory system that either eliminates ammonia quickly or converts it into a less toxic substance(uric acid) that is removed from the body.

Essential Functions

Response:Animals respond to events in their environment using specialized cells called nerve cells.

Some nerve cells are receptors that respond to sound, light, and other stimuli

The arrangement of nerve cells in the body changes dramatically from phylum to phylum

Simple animals- nerve cells, nerve net

Complex- nervous systems

Essential Functions


Some animals live their entire lives attached to a single spot (sessile)

Most are motile meaning that they move

Essential Functions

Reproduction: Most reproduce sexually by producing gametes.

Maintains genetic diversity in populations

Helps species evolve when the environment changes

Many reproduce asexually & allows to increase numbers rapidly (inverts.)

Body Plans of Animals

Symmetry: balance in body proportions

3 Types

Bilateral: can be divided only one way to produce mirror image halves


Irregular shape

Radial symmetry: can be divided along any plane to produce 2 halves which look alike


Asymmetrical: Has no definite shape.


Radial Symmetry: Body is arranged in a circle like the spokes of a wheel.


Bilateral Symmetry: If divided lengthwise in half, both sides will match.

Bilateral Symmetry

Includes worms, insects & vertebrates

Have external body parts that repeat on

either side of the body

What type of symmetry?

  • Body arrangements:

  • anterior: head region(front on upright man)

  • b. posterior: tail region (back on upright man)

  • c. dorsal: back or top

  • d. ventral: abdomen(belly) or bottom

Anatomical Terms (cont)

  • Medial

    - close to the middle

  • Lateral

    • Close to the side or movement away from middle

  • Distal

    • Away from the main part

  • Proximal

    • Close to the main part

Anatomical Terms (cont)

  • Oral

    • End with the mouth

  • Aboral

    • Opposite end of the mouth

  • Cephalic

    • Toward head

  • Caudal

    • Toward tail

Cephalization-concentration of sense organs- developed nervous system- “formation of head"

How does this happen????

Embryonic Development

STEP 1   

 STEP 2

Zygote cleaves to become blastula and then forms gastrula. The blastopore of the gastrula can become either the mouth or the anus of the organism

Protostomes vs. Deuterostomes

  • Protostome- “first mouth” Blastopore becomes the mouth. Ex-Annelids, Mollusks and arthropods

  • Deuterostome- “second mouth” Blastoporebecomes anus.

    Ex-echinoderms, hemichordates,chordates

a. Ectoderm

  •  becomes nervous system, epidermis of the skin, pituitary, lens of eye(outside layer)

b. Mesoderm

  •  becomes muscles, skeleton, notochord, circulatory system, kidney, reproductive system (middle layer)



  •  becomes lining of digestive tract, liver, pancreas, epithelial lining of lungs, many endocrine glands (inside layerdigestive tract)

Embryonic Development

  • As embryo develops, three germ

    layers form:

Body Cavities

a. Acoelomates- no body cavity lined with mesoderm

  • EX: flatworms

b. Pseudocoelomates- partial body cavity lined with mesoderm

  • “Tube within a tube” body plan

  • EX: roundworms, rotifers

c. Coelomates- true body cavity lined with mesoderm

  • EX: all other animals

Advantages of a body cavity (coelom or pseudocoelom):

  • Fluid in cavity helps distribute food, wastes, hormones, etc. from one end of animal to the other

  • Better distribution allows animal to grow larger

  • A place to put things, like new organs


  • Invertebrates-no backbone

  • Vertebrates or Chordates-backbone


  • What are the main characteristics all animals share?

  • Evidence suggests that animals evolved from ___________.

  • What are the three animal body types?

  • What are the three germ layers?

  • What is the difference between a protostome and a deuterostome?

The End

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