Zoology
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Zoology. An Introduction. Zoology. Study of animals In this class- Important Kingdoms- Protista - some, unicellular, animal-like organisms(protozoans) considered to be evol . precursors to animals ANIMALIA - are ANIMALS Latin “ zoa ” or “ zo ”- means animal. Kingdom Protista.

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Zoology

Zoology

An Introduction


Zoology1

Zoology

  • Study of animals

  • In this class- Important Kingdoms-

    Protista- some, unicellular, animal-like organisms(protozoans)

    considered to be evol. precursors to animals

    ANIMALIA- are ANIMALS

  • Latin “zoa” or “zo”- means animal


Kingdom protista

Kingdom Protista

  • Single celled

  • Eukaryotic

  • Ingest or produce food

  • Some animallike


What is an animal

What is an Animal?

Are members of Kingdom Animalia

Are multicellular

Are Eukaryotic

Are Heterotrophs

Lack cell walls

Usually have a method of

movement

Most reproduce sexually

Require oxygen


What is an animal1

What is an Animal?

Multicellular: Having more than one cell

Eukaryotic: Organisms whose cell

contain a nucleus

Heterotroph: Organisms that obtains

energy from the foods it consumes; also

called a consumer.


2 types of animals

2 Types of Animals

Invertebrates: Animals that do not

have a backbone or a vertebral column

Vertebrates: Animals that has a

vertebral column, or backbone


What animals do to survive

What Animals Do to Survive

Animals carry out the following essential functions:

1. Feed

2. Respire

3. Circulation

4. Excrete

5. Respond

6. Move

7. Reproduce


Essential functions

Essential Functions

Respiration: Whether they live in water or on land, all animals respire, which means they take in oxygen and give off carbon dioxide.

Some can rely on diffusion of these substances through their skin

Most have evolved complex tissues and organ systems for respiration


Essential functions1

Essential Functions

Circulation: transport of nutrients and wastes

Many aquatic animals (ex: aquatic worms) rely solely on diffusion to transport oxygen & waste.

Larger animals have some kind of circulatory system to move materials around within their bodies.


Essential functions2

Essential Functions

Excretion: releasing wastes

A buildup of ammonia & other nitrogenous wastes would kill an animal

Animals have excretory system that either eliminates ammonia quickly or converts it into a less toxic substance(uric acid) that is removed from the body.


Essential functions3

Essential Functions

Response:Animals respond to events in their environment using specialized cells called nerve cells.

Some nerve cells are receptors that respond to sound, light, and other stimuli

The arrangement of nerve cells in the body changes dramatically from phylum to phylum

Simple animals- nerve cells, nerve net

Complex- nervous systems


Essential functions4

Essential Functions

Movement:

Some animals live their entire lives attached to a single spot (sessile)

Most are motile meaning that they move


Essential functions5

Essential Functions

Reproduction: Most reproduce sexually by producing gametes.

Maintains genetic diversity in populations

Helps species evolve when the environment changes

Many reproduce asexually & allows to increase numbers rapidly (inverts.)


Zoology

Body Plans of Animals

Symmetry: balance in body proportions

3 Types

Bilateral: can be divided only one way to produce mirror image halves

Asymmetrical-

Irregular shape

Radial symmetry: can be divided along any plane to produce 2 halves which look alike


Symmetry

Symmetry

Asymmetrical: Has no definite shape.


Symmetry1

Symmetry

Radial Symmetry: Body is arranged in a circle like the spokes of a wheel.


Symmetry2

Symmetry

Bilateral Symmetry: If divided lengthwise in half, both sides will match.


Bilateral symmetry

Bilateral Symmetry

Includes worms, insects & vertebrates

Have external body parts that repeat on

either side of the body


What type of symmetry

What type of symmetry?


Zoology

  • Body arrangements:

  • anterior: head region(front on upright man)

  • b. posterior: tail region (back on upright man)

  • c. dorsal: back or top

  • d. ventral: abdomen(belly) or bottom


Anatomical terms cont

Anatomical Terms (cont)

  • Medial

    - close to the middle

  • Lateral

    • Close to the side or movement away from middle

  • Distal

    • Away from the main part

  • Proximal

    • Close to the main part


Anatomical terms cont1

Anatomical Terms (cont)

  • Oral

    • End with the mouth

  • Aboral

    • Opposite end of the mouth

  • Cephalic

    • Toward head

  • Caudal

    • Toward tail


Cephalization concentration of sense organs developed nervous system formation of head

Cephalization-concentration of sense organs- developed nervous system- “formation of head"


Zoology

How does this happen????


Embryonic development

Embryonic Development

STEP 1   

 STEP 2

Zygote cleaves to become blastula and then forms gastrula. The blastopore of the gastrula can become either the mouth or the anus of the organism


Protostomes vs deuterostomes

Protostomes vs. Deuterostomes

  • Protostome- “first mouth” Blastopore becomes the mouth. Ex-Annelids, Mollusks and arthropods

  • Deuterostome- “second mouth” Blastoporebecomes anus.

    Ex-echinoderms, hemichordates,chordates


Embryonic development1

a. Ectoderm

  •  becomes nervous system, epidermis of the skin, pituitary, lens of eye(outside layer)

b. Mesoderm

  •  becomes muscles, skeleton, notochord, circulatory system, kidney, reproductive system (middle layer)

c. 

Endoderm

  •  becomes lining of digestive tract, liver, pancreas, epithelial lining of lungs, many endocrine glands (inside layerdigestive tract)

Embryonic Development

  • As embryo develops, three germ

    layers form:


Zoology

Body Cavities

a. Acoelomates- no body cavity lined with mesoderm

  • EX: flatworms


Zoology

b. Pseudocoelomates- partial body cavity lined with mesoderm

  • “Tube within a tube” body plan

  • EX: roundworms, rotifers


Zoology

c. Coelomates- true body cavity lined with mesoderm

  • EX: all other animals


Advantages of a body cavity coelom or pseudocoelom

Advantages of a body cavity (coelom or pseudocoelom):

  • Fluid in cavity helps distribute food, wastes, hormones, etc. from one end of animal to the other

  • Better distribution allows animal to grow larger

  • A place to put things, like new organs


The animal kingdom overview

THE ANIMAL KINGDOM OVERVIEW

  • Invertebrates-no backbone

  • Vertebrates or Chordates-backbone


Checkpoint

Checkpoint

  • What are the main characteristics all animals share?

  • Evidence suggests that animals evolved from ___________.

  • What are the three animal body types?

  • What are the three germ layers?

  • What is the difference between a protostome and a deuterostome?


The end

The End


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