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Algorithm: Step by step procedure of solving a particular problem. Pseudo code: Artificial informal language used to develop algorithms. Flow chart: Graphical representation of an algorithm. Algorithm to find whether a number even or odd: Step1: BeginStep1: START

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Algorithm step by step procedure of solving a particular problem

Algorithm: Step by step procedure of solving a particular problem.

Pseudo code: Artificial informal language used to develop algorithms.

Flow chart: Graphical representation of an algorithm.

Algorithm to find whether a number even or odd:

Step1: BeginStep1: START

Step2: Take a numberStep2: Read num

Step3: if the number is divisible by2 thenStep3: if(num%2=0) then

print that number is evenprint num is even

otherwise print that number is odd otherwise

print num is odd

Step4: EndStep4: STOP

(Algorithm in natural language)(Algorithm by using pseudo code)

#include<stdio.h>

#include<conio.h>

main()

{

int num;

printf(“Enter any number”);

scanf(“%d”,&num);

if(num%2==0)

printf(“%d is even”,num);

else

printf(%d is odd”,num);

}

(Program in C language)

start

Flow chart:

read num

If num%2=0

No

Yes

print num is odd

print num is even

stop


Flow chart symbols

Flow chart symbols

OvalTerminal

ParallegramInput/output

RectangleProcess

DocumentHard copy

DiamondDecision

CircleConnector

Double sided RectangleSub program

HexagonIteration

TrapezoidManual Operation

CylinderMagnetic Disk Storage


Algorithm step by step procedure of solving a particular problem

simple if:

Entry

if-else:

Entry

False

True

Test

Expression

?

Test

Expression

?

True

False

True Statement-block

False-block

Statements

True-block

Statements

Next statement

Next statement

/* check a citizen is eligible for voting */

#include<stdio.h>

int main()

{

int age;

printf(“Enter the age : ”);

scanf(“%d”,&age);

if(age >= 18)

printf(“Eligible for voting…”);

getch();

}

/* print a number is even or odd */

#include<stdio.h>

int main()

{

int number;

printf(“Enter a number : “);

scanf(“%d”, &number);

if((number %2) == 0)

printf(“%d is even number.”,number);

else

printf(“%d is odd number.”,number);

}


Algorithm step by step procedure of solving a particular problem

/* check whether a year is leap year or not */

#include<stdio.h>

int main() {

int year;

printf("Enter the year ?");

scanf("%d",&year);

if((year %100) == 0)

{

if((year % 400) == 0)

printf("%d is leap year.",year);

else

printf("%d is not leap year.",year);

} else {

if((year % 4) == 0)

printf("%d is leap year.",year);

else

printf("%d is not leap year.",year);

}

getch();

}

nested if…else:

Entry

Test

condition1

?

False

True

Test

condition2

?

True

False

Statement-1

Statement-3

Statement-2

Next statement


Algorithm step by step procedure of solving a particular problem

if…else…if :

/* program to print the grade of student */

#include<stdio.h>

int main() {

int marks;

printf("Enter marks ? ");

scanf("%d", &marks);

if(marks >= 75)

printf("Distinction");

else if(marks >= 60)

printf("First class");

else if(marks >= 50)

printf("Second class");

else if(marks >= 35)

printf("Third class");

else

printf("Failed");

}

Entry

True

Test

condition1

?

Statement-1

False

True

Test

condition2

?

Statement-2

False

True

Test

conditionN

?

Statement-N

Next statement


Algorithm step by step procedure of solving a particular problem

/* program to simulate a simple calculator */

#include<stdio.h>

int main() {

float a,b;

char opr;

printf("Enter number1 operator number2 : ");

scanf("%f %c %f",&a,&opr,&b);

switch(opr)

{

case '+':

printf("Sum : %f",(a + b));

break;

case '-':

printf("Difference : %f",(a - b));

break;

case '*':

printf("Product : %f",(a * b));

break;

case '/':

printf("Quotient : %f",(a / b));

break;

default:

printf("Invalid Operation!");

}

}

switch statement :

Entry

switch

expression

?

value2

valueN

default

value1

……...

associate

statement

associate

statement

associate

statement

associate

statement

Exit

Next statement


Algorithm step by step procedure of solving a particular problem

Loop Statements

do-while – (Exit controlled )

while – (Entry controlled )

Entry

Entry

Test

Condition

?

False

Body of The loop

true

Test

Condition

?

False

Body of The loop

Following Statement

True

Following Statement

/* average of 5 numbers */

#include<stdio.h>

int main() {

int count = 1;

float x, sum = 0;

do {

printf(“x = “);

scanf(“%f”,&x);

sum += x;

++ count;

} while(count <= 5);

printf(“Average = %f “, (sum/5))

}

/* sum of 1 to 10 numbers */

#include<stdio.h>

int main() {

int i = 1,sum = 0;

while(i<=10){

sum = sum + i;

i = i + 1;

}

printf(“Total : %d “,sum);

}


Algorithm step by step procedure of solving a particular problem

for -- Statement

Entry

Initialization Statement

Increment Statement

False

Test

Condition

?

True

Body of The loop

Following Statement

/* check whether a number is prime or not */

#include<stdio.h>

int main() {

int n,i,factors = 0;

printf("Enter a number : ");

scanf("%d",&n);

for(i = 1; i <= n; i++) {

if((n % i)==0) ++factors;

}

if (factors == 2)

printf("%d is prime number.",n);

else

printf("%d is not prime number.",n);

}


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