The argument from doubt
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the argument from doubt. Materialism: Human persons are wholly material—every part of a person, including the mind, is a material body. Dualism : Human persons are not wholly material—they have both material bodies and immaterial minds .

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The argument from doubt

the argument from doubt


The argument from doubt

Materialism: Human persons are wholly material—every part of a person, including the mind, is a material body.

Dualism: Human persons are not wholly material—they have both material bodies and immaterial minds.

Interactionism: Minds and brains enter into two-way causal interactions.

Cartesian Dualism=Dualism+Interactionism


The argument from doubt

I attentively examined what I was, and as I observed that I could suppose that I had no body, and that there was no world nor any place in which I might be; but that I could not therefore suppose that I was not… I thence concluded that I was a substance whose whole essence or nature consists only in thinking, and which, that it may exist, has need of no place, nor is dependent on any material thing; so that “I,” that is to say, the mind by which I am what I am, is wholly distinct from the body.


The argument from doubt

I attentively examined what I was, and as I observed that I could suppose that I had no body, and that there was no world nor any place in which I might be; but that I could not therefore suppose that I was not… I thence concluded that I was a substance whose whole essence or nature consists only in thinking, and which, that it may exist, has need of no place, nor is dependent on any material thing; so that “I,” that is to say, the mind by which I am what I am, is wholly distinct from the body.


The argument from doubt

I attentively examined what I was, and as I observed that I could suppose that I had no body, and that there was no world nor any place in which I might be; but that I could not therefore suppose that I was not… I thence concluded that I was a substance whose whole essence or nature consists only in thinking, and which, that it may exist, has need of no place, nor is dependent on any material thing; so that “I,” that is to say, the mind by which I am what I am, is wholly distinct from the body.


The argument from doubt

I attentively examined what I was, and as I observed that I could suppose that I had no body, and that there was no world nor any place in which I might be; but that I could not therefore suppose that I was not… I thence concluded that I was a substance whose whole essence or nature consists only in thinking, and which, that it may exist, has need of no place, nor is dependent on any material thing; so that “I,” that is to say, the mind by which I am what I am, is wholly distinct from the body.


T he argument from doubt

the argument from doubt

  • All material bodies are such that I can doubt their existence.

  • I am not such that I can doubt my existence.

  • I am not a material body.


The parody argument

the parody argument

  • Clark Kent is such that Lois Lane can doubt he’s Superman.

  • Superman is not such that Lois Lane can doubt he’s Superman.

  • Superman is not Clark Kent.


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