Sailing
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Sailing. Ordinary Requirement 16. Ordinary Requirement 16. Name the principal parts of the masts, booms, spars, standing and running rigging, and sails of a gaff- or Marconi-rigged sloop, schooner, and ketch or yawl.

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Sailing

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Sailing

Sailing

Ordinary Requirement 16


Ordinary requirement 16

Ordinary Requirement 16

  • Name the principal parts of the masts, booms, spars, standing and running rigging, and sails of a gaff- or Marconi-rigged sloop, schooner, and ketch or yawl.

  • Describe the identifying characteristics of a sloop, ketch, yawl, cutter, and schooner.

  • Reference:

    • See "Larger Sailing Craft" on page 265

    • Appendix A.

    • The Sailmaker’s Apprentice

Ordinary Requirement 15 - Galley


In theory

In Theory

  • You don't need to know much about how a piston engine works in order to drive a car. You get in, turn on the engine, shift into gear, step on the gas, and off you go.

  • In a sailboat, though, you play a for more active role in harnessing the energy that propels you forward.

    • You can get stuck in "neutral," with no wind in your sails-or you can even capsize-so it's important to have a basic understanding of how a sailboat works.

Ordinary Requirement 15 - Galley


How a boat sails

How A Boat Sails

  • It's easy to see how a boat can sail when it's going in the same direction as the wind - the sails catch the wind and push the boat forward.

    • But how does a boat make progress sailing across the wind or even towards the wind?

  • The wind blows across the sails, creating aerodynamic lift, like an airplane wing. The lift contains a sideways force and a small forward force.

    • Very simply, the forces of the wind on the sails (aerodynamics) and the water on the underwater parts of the boat through the water.

Ordinary Requirement 15 - Galley


How a boat sails1

How A Boat Sails

  • Trimming the sails efficiently produces the most forward force and the least resistance.

    • A sailboat would slide sideways with the wind if it did not have a centerboard or keel underneath the hull.

  • The flow of water over the underwater surfaces creates lift, too - a sideways force countering the force of the wind. The combination of these forces pushes the boat forward.

    • Form stability and ballast keep a sailboat from tipping over sideways (capsizing).

  • Keelboats have a heavy concentration of weight, usually lead, in their keels. As the boat heels, the weight of the keel pulls back down.

    • Since centerboard boats don't have heavy keels, the crew must use their weight to counteract the heeling forces. If you get too far out of position, you risk a capsize.

Ordinary Requirement 15 - Galley


Masts booms spars

Masts, Booms & Spars

  • Mast

    • the vertical pole or spar that supports the sails and boom. 

  • Masthead

    • the top of the mast

  • Boom

    • the horizontal spar which is attached to the mast to support the bottom part of the mainsail.

Ordinary Requirement 15 - Galley


Standing rigging

Standing Rigging

  • Forestay

    • a wire that runs from the top of the mast (or near the masthead) to the bow and onto which the jib is attached. 

    • It supports the mast, preventing it from falling backwards.

  • Backstay

    • a wire that runs from the top of the mast to the stern and support the mast.

  • Shrouds

    • Wires that run from the masthead (or near the masthead) to the sides of the boat to support the mast and prevent it from swaying.

Ordinary Requirement 15 - Galley


Running rigging

Halyard

A line or wire used to raise or lower sails by connecting to the head of the sail

Sheet

the line used to trim or ease a sail.

Traveler

a slide, running across the boat, to which a sheet is led. 

Boom Vang

Connects the boom and mast and controls the main's leech tension by preventing or permitting the boom to rise

Cunningham

Attaches just above the tack of the main and helps control the main's luff tension

Topping Lift

prevents the boom from dropping on deck

Outhaul

Attaches to the clew of the main and adjusts the main's foot tension

Downhaul

Attaches to the boom by the mast and tightens the luff by pulling the boom down

Leads

Blocks or other fittings that control the angle of a trimmed sheet

Running Rigging

Ordinary Requirement 15 - Galley


Rigging details

Rigging Details

Ordinary Requirement 15 - Galley


Rigging details1

Rigging Details

Ordinary Requirement 15 - Galley


Rigging details2

Rigging Details

Ordinary Requirement 15 - Galley


Rigging details3

Rigging Details

Ordinary Requirement 15 - Galley


Sails

Sails

  • Not just a simple square or triangle of cloth

  • Construction is based on a series of complex curves that the sailmaker uses to create proper belly or shape

  • Made of Dacron or exotics, it is also reinforced with patches at the edges and corners and at the roach and battens to give extra stiffness and strength

Ordinary Requirement 15 - Galley


Sails1

Sails

  • Mainsail – the primary and most easily controlled source of sail power, attached along the front edge to the mast and along the bottom edge to the boom.

  • Jib – (Headsail) the sail set forward of the mainsail and attached to the forestay

  • Genoa – (Headsail) a large jib with an overlap aft of the mast.

  • Spinnaker – (Chute) a balloon like sail, often colored, used when running with the wind.

Ordinary Requirement 15 - Galley


Parts of a sail

Parts of a Sail

Ordinary Requirement 15 - Galley


Types of sails

Types of Sails

Ordinary Requirement 15 - Galley


Types of boats

Types of Boats

Ordinary Requirement 15 - Galley


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