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PROFESSIONAL ETHICS IN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING CD5590 LECTURE 10. Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic Department of Computer Science and Engineering Mälardalen University 2003. Ethics, Privacy and Civil Liberties. Some common uses of data about people.

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Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic Department of Computer Science and Engineering Mälardalen University 2003

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Gordana dodig crnkovic department of computer science and engineering m lardalen university 2003

PROFESSIONAL ETHICS

IN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

CD5590

LECTURE 10

Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic

Department of Computer Science and EngineeringMälardalen University2003


Ethics privacy and civil liberties

Ethics, Privacy and Civil Liberties


Some common uses of data about people

Some common uses of data about people

Public Information Business Transactions

Birth Certificates Mail Orders

Driver Licenses Telephone Orders

Car Registrations Subscriptions

Property Records Donations

Marriage License Credit Cards

Census Records Warranty Cards

Telephone Directories Tattslotto, ...

Consumer Surveys Accounts Payments

Passports

Visas


Gordana dodig crnkovic department of computer science and engineering m lardalen university 2003

Some common uses of data about people

which can lead to..

Multiple Mailing Lists

Subscriptions

Entertainment Specials

Donations

Memberships

Catalogues

Social Clubs

Professional Development


Ethics privacy and security some common uses of data about people

Ethics, Privacy and Security Some common uses of data about people

Public Information Business Transactions

Birth Certificates Mail Orders

Driver Licenses Telephone Orders

Car Registrations Subscriptions

Property Records Donations

Marriage License Credit Cards

Census Records Warranty Cards

Telephone Directories Tattslotto, ...

Consumer Surveys Accounts Payments

Passports

Visas


Gordana dodig crnkovic department of computer science and engineering m lardalen university 2003

Ethics, Privacy and Security

Multiple Mailing Lists

Subscriptions

Entertainment Specials

Donations

Memberships

Catalogues

Social Clubs

Professional Development


Ethics privacy and security

Ethics, Privacy and Security

  • Privacy: The right of people not to reveal information about themselves, the right to keep personal information from being misused

  • Electronic invasion of personal data has become a serious ethical issue


Ethics privacy and security1

Ethics, Privacy and Security

Invasion of Privacy. Would you agree to:

  • Your shopping habits, your income, to be available to any number of businesses ?

  • Your medical records being used by your employer as one of the means of making decision regarding promotions, hiring, redundancy ?


Ethics privacy and security us

Ethics, Privacy and SecurityUS

  • The rapid expansion of use of the Internet and E-Commerce has raised many problems with privacy aspects.

  • In America there exists the ‘Association of Corporate Privacy Officers’ which would indicate that there is much interest and concern regarding privacy of data.


Ethics privacy and security us1

Ethics, Privacy and SecurityUS

  • Privacy Officers :

    - train employees about privacy

    - examine a company’s policies for potential risks

    - manage customer-privacy disputes

    - inform senior executives on how the company deals with privacy issues


Security

Security

Database Security: is the protection of a database from

  • unauthorised access

  • unauthorised modification

  • destruction

    PRIVACY is the right of individuals to have some control over information about themselves

    INTEGRITY refers to the correctness, completeness and consistency of data


Security1

Security

AIMPREVENTS

- Confidentiality- Unauthorised disclosure

- Integrity- Unauthorised Amendment

- Availability- Unauthorised Withholding

Security Systems:

1. Computer Security

2. Communications Security

- transmission

- encryption

3. Procedural security

4. Physical security

http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/courseware/cse1720/Week12.ppt


Civil rights and civil liberties

Civil Rights and Civil Liberties


What are civil rights and what are civil liberties

What are civil rights and what are civil liberties?

Civil Rights = The right of every person to equal protection under the law and equal access to society’s opportunities and public facilities.

Civil Liberties = Individual rights that are protected from infringement by government.


Civil liberties

CIVIL LIBERTIES

  • The Bill of Rights

  • First Amendment: Freedom of Religion

  • First Amendment: Freedom of Speech and Press

  • The Right to Keep and Bear Arms

  • The Rights of Criminal Defendants

  • The Right to Privacy


Civil liberties1

CIVIL LIBERTIES

  • Civil liberties are the personal rights and freedoms that the federal government cannot abridge, either by law, constitution, or judicial interpretation.

  • These are limitations on the power of government to restrain or dictate how individuals act.


The right to privacy

The Right to Privacy

  • Privacy is not specifically mentioned in the Constitution, nevertheless some areas are to be off-limits to government interference.

  • Examples:

    – The right to Abortion– The right to Homosexuality– The Right to Die


Civil liberties after sept 11

Civil Liberties after Sept 11


Privacy before sept 11 th

Privacy before Sept. 11th

  • Tradeoff between security and privacy has always been a major issue for most Americans

  • Most sided with privacy at the expense of security

  • 84% of Americans were concerned about the government, businesses, or individuals collecting information on them


Privacy before sept 11 th cont

Privacy Before Sept 11th, cont.

  • 54% were “very concerned”

  • Only a minor portion of America (13%) supported FBI internet surveillance to catch criminals

  • 62% of Americans thought that new laws should be created to guarantee that privacy would be protected from government agencies


9 11 2001

On September 11, 2001, terrorists attacked the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon just outside Washington, D.C.

9.11.2001


Shift in public opinion

Shift in Public Opinion


Government reaction

Government Reaction

  • The government is reacting to public opinion polls and are passing new controversial laws that expand government power

  • Have already passed many ‘anti-terrorism’ bills that cover matters such as wiretaps, electronic surveillance, regulation of airports, etc.


Gordana dodig crnkovic department of computer science and engineering m lardalen university 2003

  • Internet wiretapping scheme

  • Installed at ISPs (Internet Service Providers)

  • Maintained and operated by FBI

  • Monitors all email, both incoming and outgoing


Cryptography

Cryptography

  • Evidence produced from the Libyan bombings that Osama bin Laden, the suspected mastermind behind the 9/11 attacks, used phones scrambled by strong cryptography to hide the planning of the Libyan bombings

  • Evidence produced by the US government suggests that similar methods were used by the terrorist network for 9/11 attacks as well


Cryptography1

Cryptography

  • The US government has charged that such cryptography aids terrorism more than it protects privacy and therefore should be banned


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Public opinion will most likely remain concerned with security for months and years to come

  • Government expanding law enforcement powers

  • Privacy subordinated public safety

    http://www.cs.dartmouth.edu/~cs7/papers/zachary-pr.ppt


Gordana dodig crnkovic department of computer science and engineering m lardalen university 2003

Ethical Challenges in a Public Health Crisis – SARS Epidemic


Gordana dodig crnkovic department of computer science and engineering m lardalen university 2003

Reference: Ross Upshur, University of Toronto

http://phs.med.utoronto.ca/sars2003/Upshur%20SARS.pdf


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