Evidence and argumentation frameworks
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 16

Evidence and Argumentation Frameworks PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 53 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Evidence and Argumentation Frameworks. Simone Stumpf Computer Science [email protected] x33039 http://www.cs.ucl.ac.uk/staff/S.Stumpf. Structure of talk. What is evidence? The problem of evidence - an example Argumentation Theory Fields of argumentation Analytic Dialectic Rhetoric

Download Presentation

Evidence and Argumentation Frameworks

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Evidence and argumentation frameworks

Evidence and Argumentation Frameworks

Simone Stumpf

Computer Science

[email protected]

x33039

http://www.cs.ucl.ac.uk/staff/S.Stumpf

Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 03


Structure of talk

Structure of talk

  • What is evidence?

  • The problem of evidence - an example

  • Argumentation Theory

  • Fields of argumentation

    • Analytic

    • Dialectic

    • Rhetoric

  • Perelman’s New Rhetoric

  • Current areas of interest

Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 03


What is evidence

What is evidence?

  • something that furnishes proof

  • something submitted to a tribunal to ascertain the truth of a matter

    (Merriam-Webster)

Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 03


The problem of evidence the damilola taylor case

The problem of evidence - the Damilola Taylor case

The expert witnesses

The jury

The star witnesses

The CPS

The police

Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 03


Argumentation theory

Argumentation Theory

  • Argumentation

    • Reasoned discourse to reach a standpoint

  • Argument

    • A discourse involving statements

    • A statement/premise proffered in a discourse

  • Argumentation Theory

    • Study of how people argue (or should argue)

Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 03


Use of argumentation

Use of argumentation

  • Design process

    • Teams

    • Indivdiuals

  • Decision Support/ Expert Systems

    • Capture human reasoning

    • Enhance reasoning

  • Role of evidence in these instances

    • Proof?

    • Truth?

Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 03


Fields of argumentation

Analytic

Rhetoric

Dialectic

Proof

Validity

True premises lead to a true conclusion

Critical assessment

Uncertainty

Premises that cannot be proven true lead to a conclusion which is probably true

Persuasion

Acceptance by audience

A conclusion is reached if acceptable premises are supplied

Fields of argumentation

Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 03


Analytic

Analytic

  • Evidence is a true statement used with inference rules

    • “rational”

    • “objective”

    • “measurable”

    • “timeless”

Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 03


Analytic application

Analytic application

  • Fallacies - realisation that the way humans argue is not like formal logic

  • Informal Logic

    • Extensions to formal models (modal, non-monotonic, etc.)

    • Adopted in knowledge-based systems to simulate/automate reasoning

Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 03


Dialectic

Dialectic

  • Evidence is a probable statement in support of a conclusion

    • Evidence testing - proponent and opponent

    • Need to discharge opponent’s challenges to “win” argument

      • Relevance

      • Weight

      • Links

    • Agree to play by certain ground rules of argument

      • Field-independent structure

      • Field-dependent acceptable content

      • Phases and roles within argument

Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 03


Dialectic application

Dialectic application

  • Toulmin structure

  • Argumentation-based (visual) tools

    • Design Rationale (IBIS, Questmap, DRL, DRAMA, etc.)

    • Critical thinking (Araucaria, Belvedere, AAA, etc.)

    • Logic of Argumentation (medical decision support)

  • Improve and support testing process

Data

Qualifier, Conclusion

Warrant

Rebuttal

Backing

Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 03


Rhetoric

Rhetoric

  • Evidence is a statement that an arguer uses to persuade an audience to accept a conclusion

    • Evidence is deliberately used (or not used)

    • Important how and in what order it is presented

    • Success vs. truth!

Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 03


Perelman s new rhetoric

Perelman’s New Rhetoric

  • Presence and interpretation

  • Premises

    • Facts, presumptions, truths

    • Values and loci

  • Argumentation schemes

    • Association

      • Quasi-logical schemes (transitivity, whole-parts, by sacrifice, probabilities, etc.)

      • Schemes based on the structure of reality (causal, coexistence, etc.)

      • Schemes establishing the structure of reality (example, analogy, metaphor, etc.)

    • Dissociation

Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 03


Perelman new rhetoric

Perelman’ New Rhetoric

  • Arguer needs to adapt argument to audience

  • Beliefs of audiences of both premises and arg schemes important

  • Different audiences - different arguments

    • Particular audience

    • Specialised audience

    • Universal audience

Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 03


Rhetoric application

Rhetoric application

  • Descriptive framework

    • Different conception of fallacies

    • Process of persuasion

    • Analysis of audience(s)

  • “persuasion machines”

    • Natural language generation

Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 03


Current areas of interest

Current areas of interest

  • Design process

    • Using rhetoric to analyse communication in design teams

    • Design rationale and extensions

    • Identification of problems in argumentation process

  • Audiences and what persuades them

    • Learning between organisations

  • Knowledge acquisition/management

    • Comparison of expert and database “evidence”

    • Knowledge-Based Systems

Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 03


  • Login