Artificial hearts going beyond human evolution
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Artificial Hearts: Going Beyond Human Evolution. Jon Goldberg. Functionality of the Heart. Maintains flow of blood throughout body Supplies nutrients and oxygen Waste transport Pumps via muscle contraction + relaxation to “push” blood. Diagram of the Heart. Problems to Solve.

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Functionality of the heart
Functionality of the Heart

  • Maintains flow of blood throughout body

    • Supplies nutrients and oxygen

    • Waste transport

  • Pumps via muscle contraction + relaxation to “push” blood



Problems to solve
Problems to Solve

  • Heart Failure

    • Systolic Dysfunction

      • Heart does not contract with enough force; less oxygen-rich blood.

    • Diastolic Dysfunction

      • Heart contracts, but ventricles do not relax/are stiff; less blood enters the heart.


How to solve
How to Solve

  • Complete heart replacement

    • Mimic “pumping action” of natural hearts

      • Big and bulky. Mechanical pumping is hard to pull off.

      • Requires a lot of equipment.

  • Heart assistance

    • VAD (Ventricular Assistance Device )

      • Left and/or right ventricular assistance.



The pros of the lvad
The Pros of the LVAD

  • Extremely portable.

  • Relieves stress on heart. Allows it to perform some repairs.

  • “Continuously Flowing” requires no pumping.


The cons
The Cons

  • Requires blood thinners to use.

  • Unplanned hospital readmission

    • Infections

    • Device malfunction

  • Little full-heart-replacement testing


The full replacement story
The Full Replacement Story

  • Young Central-African man receives a LVAD in response to heart failure.

  • Goes missing for 8 months.

  • Comes back, heart has failed. Has been living the past months with nothing but the LVAD.


The full replacement story cont
The Full Replacement Story Cont.

  • Dr. Billy Cohn and Dr. Bud Frazier push the LVAD to full replacement.

    • Takes 38 calves’ hearts out.


The future
The Future

  • Full heart replacement looks promising.

    • Needs more testing + enhancements

    • 600,000 people die each year due to heart failure.

      • Dr. Cohn and Dr. Frazier are pushing the Heartmate II.

  • More experimentation with the Archimedes’ Screw design.

    • Less “mimicking” of natural pumping, more experimenting with human innovation.


References
References

  • http://www.medicinenet.com/heart_failure/page3.htm

  • http://www.heartfailurematters.org/EN/UnderstandingHeartFailure/Pages/Whatarethedifferenttypesofheartfailure.aspx

  • http://www.medicotips.com/2010/06/died-of-hear-attack.html

  • http://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/treating-left-ventricular-device

  • http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/vad/

  • http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/tah/

  • http://content.onlinejacc.org/article.aspx?articleid=1204944

  • http://abcnews.go.com/Health/texas-man-pioneers-beatless-heart-wave-future/story?id=13838596

  • http://www.voanews.com/content/doctors-achieve-milestone-using-artificial-heart-with-no-beat-125085499/171541.html

  • http://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/facts.htm


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