Health Hazards  Special Emphasis Program

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Objectives. In this course, we will discuss the following:NCDOL Health Hazards Special Emphasis Program (SEP)Lead, asbestos, silica, hexavalent chromium (CrVI) and isocyanatesExposuresHealth effectsAbatement methods. OSH Health Hazards SEP. This presentation focuses on lead, silica, asbestos, isocyanates and hexavalent chromium. These chemicals have substances with serious health effects from overexposures.OSH has increased the number of inspections to focus on industries that use these chemicals and substances..

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Health Hazards Special Emphasis Program

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1. Health Hazards Special Emphasis Program The information in this presentation is provided voluntarily by the N.C. Department of Labor, Education Training and Technical Assistance Bureau as a public service and is made available in good faith. This presentation is designed to assist trainers conducting OSHA outreach training for workers. Since workers are the target audience, this presentation emphasizes hazard identification, avoidance, and control – not standards. No attempt has been made to treat the topic exhaustively. It is essential that trainers tailor their presentations to the needs and understanding of their audience. The information and advice provided on this Site and on Linked Sites is provided solely on the basis that users will be responsible for making their own assessment of the matters discussed herein and are advised to verify all relevant representations, statements, and information. This presentation is not a substitute for any of the provisions of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of North Carolina or for any standards issued by the N.C. Department of Labor. Mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations does not imply endorsement by the N.C. Department of Labor. The information in this presentation is provided voluntarily by the N.C. Department of Labor, Education Training and Technical Assistance Bureau as a public service and is made available in good faith. This presentation is designed to assist trainers conducting OSHA outreach training for workers. Since workers are the target audience, this presentation emphasizes hazard identification, avoidance, and control – not standards. No attempt has been made to treat the topic exhaustively. It is essential that trainers tailor their presentations to the needs and understanding of their audience. The information and advice provided on this Site and on Linked Sites is provided solely on the basis that users will be responsible for making their own assessment of the matters discussed herein and are advised to verify all relevant representations, statements, and information. This presentation is not a substitute for any of the provisions of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of North Carolina or for any standards issued by the N.C. Department of Labor. Mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations does not imply endorsement by the N.C. Department of Labor.

2. Objectives In this course, we will discuss the following: NCDOL Health Hazards Special Emphasis Program (SEP) Lead, asbestos, silica, hexavalent chromium (CrVI) and isocyanates Exposures Health effects Abatement methods Photo courtesy of: NCDOL-OSH Division Photo courtesy of: NCDOL-OSH Division

3. OSH Health Hazards SEP This presentation focuses on lead, silica, asbestos, isocyanates and hexavalent chromium. These chemicals have substances with serious health effects from overexposures. OSH has increased the number of inspections to focus on industries that use these chemicals and substances. Photo courtesy of: NCDOL-OSH Division Photo courtesy of: NCDOL-OSH Division

4. Health Hazards SEP Lead 29 CFR 1910.1025 29 CFR 1926.62

5. Lead Standard Lead means metallic lead, all inorganic lead compounds, and organic lead soaps. Excluded from this definition are all other organic lead compounds Lead exposure sources Lead-based paint, leaded gasoline, drinking water, food, brakes, batteries, battery recycling, foundries, welding/cutting and brazing Lead shot, fishing tackle and indoor/outdoor shooting ranges

6. Lead exposure Acute: Shows up relatively soon after serious exposure occurs. Excessive exposure to lead can result in a variety of symptoms, including a metallic taste, stomach pain and vomiting, diarrhea, and black stools. Chronic: Takes some time before they begin to develop and often are attributed to low exposures (doses) adding up over a long period of time. Lead Health Effects Photo source: US Geologic Service Photo source: US Geologic Service

7. Lead has a permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 50 µg/m³ over an 8 hour period. Employers shall implement engineering controls and safe work practices to prevent exposure. Employers shall provide protective clothing and where necessary, with respiratory protection in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.134. Lead PEL Photo source: US Geologic Service Photo source: US Geologic Service

8. Medical Surveillance Lead has an action level (AL) of 30 µg/m³ Employees exposed to the AL or to the PEL levels shall be enrolled in a medical surveillance program. Appendix C- Medical Questionnaire

9. Abatement Methods Engineering Mechanical ventilation Substitution Isolation Work practice/administrative controls Housekeeping Hygiene facilities Personal hygiene practices Designated break areas Employee information and training Medical surveillance/medical removal PPE Respiratory protection Protective work clothing

10. Health Hazards SEP Asbestos 29 CFR 1910.1001 29 CFR 1926.1101

11. Asbestos Standard Asbestos is the name given to a group of naturally occurring fibrous silicate minerals mined for their useful properties such as thermal insulation, chemical and thermal stability, and high tensile strength. Used in building materials and vehicle brakes, for resistance against heat and corrosion. Asbestos includes: Chrysotile Amosite Crocidolite Photo 1 courtesy of NC DHHS and EPAPhoto 1 courtesy of NC DHHS and EPA

12. Airborne fibers range in size from 0.1 to 10 µm in length (respirable). ACM: “asbestos-containing material,” any material containing >1% asbestos. PACM: “presumed asbestos-containing material” – thermal system insulation and surfacing material found in buildings constructed no later than 1980. Asbestos Photo: NCDOL Photo: NCDOL

13. Asbestosis: Asbestosis is a serious, progressive, long-term non-cancer disease of the lungs. Lung cancer: Lung cancer causes the largest number of deaths related to asbestos exposure. The most common symptoms of lung cancer are coughing and a change in breathing. Mesothelioma: Is a rare form of cancer that is found in the thin lining (membrane) of the lung, chest, abdomen, and heart and almost all cases are linked to exposure to asbestos. Asbestos Health Effects

14. PEL Employee exposure 0.1 fiber per cubic centimeter(f/cc) of air, averaged over an 8 hour work shift. Excursion limit Not more than 1 f/cc averaged over 30 minutes. Monitoring Initially for workers who may be exposed above a PEL or above the excursion limit. Periodic monitoring at reasonable intervals if above PEL.

15. Medical Surveillance Required for exposure above PEL Pre-placement examinations Medical/work history Complete physical exam with emphasis on respiratory system, cardiovascular system and digestive tract Completion of questionnaire – Appendix D Chest roentgenogram Pulmonary function test (PFT) Any additional tests required by the Physician or Other Licensed Healthcare Provider (PLHCP) Periodic exam Annually Termination MS Clip Art MS Clip Art

16. Abatement Engineering Mechanical ventilation Work practice/administrative controls Equipment Housekeeping Hygiene facilities Employee information and training PPE Respiratory protection Protective work clothing

17. Respiratory Protection

18. Abatement and Disposal

19. Responsibility Building/facility owner Abatement is considered construction and the following must be adhered to: Multi-employer worksite Inform others of measures to control exposures Hazards abated by contractor who created Adjacent employer will check containment GC requires compliance Competent person Illustration: MS Clipart Illustration: MS Clipart

20. Health Hazards SEP Hexavalent Chromium 29 CFR 1910.1026 29 CFR 1926.1126

21. What is Hexavalent Chromium? Toxic form of chromium metal that is generally man-made. Used in many industrial applications primarily for its anti-corrosive properties. Can be created during certain “hot” work processes where the original form of chromium was not hexavalent.

22. Examples of Cr(VI) Compounds Ammonium dichromate Calcium chromate Chromium trioxide or chromic acid Lead chromate (chromium yellow) Potassium chromate Potassium dichromate Sodium chromate Strontium chromate Zinc chromate (NH4)2Cr2O7 CaCrO4 CrO3 PbCrO4 K2CrO4 K2Cr2O7 Na2CrO4 SrCrO4 ZnCrO4

23. Industries/Operations Covered by Cr(VI) Standard Electroplating Welding on stainless steel or Cr(VI) painted surfaces Painting Aerospace Auto body repair Chromate pigment and chemical production Chromium dye and catalyst production Glass manufacturing Plastic colorant production Construction Traffic painting Refractory brick restoration Paint removal from bridges

24. Health Effects Lung cancer in workers who breathe airborne hexavalent chromium. Irritation or damage to the nose, throat, and lung (respiratory tract) if hexavalent chromium breathed at high levels. Irritation or damage to the eyes and skin if hexavalent chromium contacts these organs in high concentrations. Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division

25. Medical Surveillance Conducted with in 30 days after initial assignment Annually Within 30 days after PLHCP written medical opinion Employee shows signs and symptoms of adverse health effects With in 30 days after exposure of uncontrolled release Termination of employee MS Clip Art MS Clip Art

26. Exposure Limits PEL 5 µg/m3, calculated as an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) Action level 2.5 µg/m3 Exposure determination See paragraph (d) for more specifics Photo: NCDOL-OSH Division Photo: NCDOL-OSH Division

27. Monitoring Scheduled Initial monitoring indicates exposures are: Below the AL: monitoring can be discontinued At or above the AL: monitor every 6 months Above the PEL: monitor every 3 months Periodic personal monitoring Performance-oriented option To determine 8 hour TWA for each employee based on any combination of the following: Air-monitoring data Historical monitoring data Objective data

28. Abatement

29. Major Provisions of Cr(VI) Standard Scope Permissible exposure limit Exposure determination Regulated areas* Methods of compliance Respiratory protection Protective work clothing and equipment *General Industry only Hygiene areas and practices Housekeeping* Medical surveillance Communication of hazards Recordkeeping Dates

30. Regulated Areas General industry employers only Areas where exposures exceed or can be reasonably expected to exceed the PEL. Must be demarcated from other areas Must limit access to employees who have a need to be there Photo: OSHA.gov Photo: OSHA.gov

31. Health Hazards SEP Isocyanates 29 CFR 1910.1000 29 CFR 1926.55

32. Isocyanates Are compounds containing the isocyanate group (-NCO). They react with compounds containing alcohol (hydroxyl) groups to produce polyurethane polymers, which are components of polyurethane foams, thermoplastic elastomers, spandex fibers, and polyurethane paints. They are the raw materials that make up all polyurethane products. PELs are very low (<1ppm). Photo Source: www.grc.nasa.gov Photo Source: www.grc.nasa.gov

33. Health Effects Health effects of isocyanate exposure include irritation of skin and mucous membranes, chest tightness, and difficult breathing. Isocyanates include compounds classified as potential human carcinogens and are known to cause cancer in animals. The main effects of hazardous exposures are occupational asthma and other lung problems, as well as irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, and skin. Photo: OSHA.gov Photo: OSHA.gov

34. Medical Surveillance It is recommended that workers exposed to isocyanates undergo annual medical examinations and health surveillance under the supervision of a PLHCP. Physical examination should detail the workers demographic and occupational history. A pulmonary function test (spirometry) is required as well as a blood sample to monitor the systemic effects. Photo: http://www.nlhep.org Photo: http://www.nlhep.org

35. Abatement Engineering Mechanical ventilation Work practice/administrative controls Housekeeping Hygiene facilities Regulated areas of work PPE Respiratory protection Protective work clothing

36. Health Hazards SEP Silica 29 CFR 1910.1000 29 CFR 1926.55

37. Silica At least 1.7 million U.S. workers are exposed to respirable crystalline silica in a variety of industries and occupations, including construction, sandblasting, and mining. Silicosis, an irreversible but preventable disease, is the illness most closely associated with occupational exposure to the material, which also is known as silica dust.

38. Silica If employer only suspects that silica is a hazard at the workplace, still required by OSHA to communicate this potential hazard to all employees. Examples include: Abrasive blasting Blast furnaces Cement manufacturing Ceramics, clay, and pottery Photo: Federal OSHA Photo: Federal OSHA

39. Silica Concrete mixing Demolition Electronics industry Foundry industry: grinding, molding, shakeout, core room (high risk) Hand molding, casting, and forming Jack hammer operations Manufacturing abrasives, paints, soaps, and glass Mining Rolling and finishing mills Sandblasting (high risk) Setting, laying, and repairing railroad track

40. Health Effects Occupational exposures to respirable crystalline silica are associated with the development of silicosis, lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and airways diseases. Exposures may also be related to the development of autoimmune disorders, chronic renal disease, and other adverse health effects. Photo: Federal OSHA.gov Photo: Federal OSHA.gov

41. OSHA PEL’s for Silica The OSHA/MSHA PEL calculation serves effectively to lower the PELs for respirable dust (5 mg/m³) and total dust (10 mg/m³) down to levels which take into account the adverse health effects of breathing silica dust. Silica: Crystalline quartz (respirable) PEL = 10 mg/m³ ÷ % silica + 2 Crystalline quartz (total dust) PEL = 30 mg/m³ ÷ % silica + 2 For cristobalite and tridymite use 1/2 the value calculated from the formula for quartz.

42. Abatement Engineering Mechanical ventilation Work practice/administrative controls Housekeeping Hygiene facilities Regulated areas of work PPE Respiratory protection Protective work clothing

43. Summary In this course, we have discussed the following: NCDOL Health Hazards Special Emphasis Program Lead, asbestos, silica, hexavalent chromium VI and isocyanates Exposures Health effects Abatement methods Photo: NCDOL Photo: NCDOL

44. Thank You For Attending! Final Questions?

45. Handouts Place all handouts at the end of this presentation.

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