Ancient Persia-Iran. Historical Background. Old Testament mentions Persia over 25 centuries ago 6th century B.C. Cyrus the Great establishes the Persian Empire, conquering Lydia (546 BCE) and Mesopotamia (539 BCE) Darius (Grandson of Cyrus) conquers Babylonia Egypt up to Asia Minor (~Turkey).
After Alexander’s death:
Empire divided among generals
Greece never independent again
Greece culture continued to spread
Rome conquers Greece in 30 B.C.