A History Review. The Water Dialogues. Project Beginnings. The United Nations Millennium Declaration: "We resolve to halve, by the year 2015, the proportion of people who are unable to reach or to afford safe drinking water". The Goal of The Water Dialogues:
The Water Dialogues
The United Nations Millennium Declaration:
"We resolve to halve, by the year 2015, the proportion of people who are unable to reach or to afford safe drinking water".
The Goal of The Water Dialogues:
The project aims to lay firmer foundations for meeting the Millennium Development Goals for water and sanitation by assessing whether and how the private sector can contribute to achieving the human right to sustainable and affordable water and sanitation services for all.
"The United Nations once dealt only with governments. By now we know that peace and prosperity cannot be achieved without partnerships involving governments, international organisations, the business community and civil society. In today's world, we depend on each other.”
The innovation for hosting the MSD as a fully integrated part of this conference has resulted in a richness and diversity from which most delegates seem to feel that they have benefited.
If we are to meet the goal agreed at the Millennium Summit, each day for the next 14 years we will need to provide new access to safe and affordable water for more than 300,000 people . If we had a similar target for sanitation, an extra 390,000 people per day will have to be provided new services. It is clear that business as usual is not an option.
Is there a case for a multistakeholder review of private sector participation in water and sanitation?
1) Participatory Research Methods by Jeanette Clark
2) Recording the Process - Capturing What Happens and Why by Victor Munnik
These presentations will now be briefly outlined
The advantages of Participatory Research Methods
Better quality of information and analysis
Direct link between learning and action
Locally generated solutions inspire ‘buy-in’
Capacity building and empowerment - giving citizens the tools to participate in governance
Improvement of linkages and co-operation amongst stakeholders
Diverse and flexible set of tools and techniques for information sharing, analysis and planning
It is not the tools that are participatory, but the way they are used to support a process. Thus, careful planning and facilitation are required
Participatory Research Methods:
Focus group discussion
Calendars: seasonal calendars, historical seasonal calendars
Group and teamwork
Recording the process: capturing what happens and why
Introduce your story– emphasise its value and importance
Remember to describe the significant turning points in the process and the obstacles that prevent it moving forward - emphasise the importance of Bonn, Berlin etc and agreement that multistakeholder process was required)
Tell the story– constant referral to its significance - describe the different story of each dialogue
Introduce and develop the question/quest/adventure that has inspired the need for your story
Resolve the story– reaffirm its value and its result (moral) (address the challenges of the process, prove what the process has changed or should help to change about the water sector)
Imagine your audience and what they want to knowJohannesburg, 2005
Three major elements of research were highlighted via a combination of discussion and presentation
Initial discussion focused on the use of case studies in
The following major points emerged:
Case studies should look at instances of the use of PSP and where it is not used
A balanced set of cases should be sought
Case studies should not be treated as a valid sample survey
Case studies should always be supported by other types of data
Structural Elements to Consider:
History, Economics and Politics
This presentation offered evidence and suggestions concerning the history, economics and politics of water
The effects of local and historical context on water supply systems and their development over time was outlined
Water systems are constrained and resourced by economic factors – investing capital, deploying labour, managing water resources – and the need to pay for these things
They are driven and shaped by political factors, the balance of forces that generates commitment to providing water as a public service.
Understanding these material factors is necessary for developing policies to extend water supply servicesLondon Research Meeting, 2006
Looking at known cases and regulatory cases
Structural context and regulatory environment are significant and impact on all types of provision - the success or failure of a utility has more to do with structural context and regulatory environment
Elements to consider in research:
Attitude to regulation, macroeconomics and the availability of raw materials, public participation, technology, and economies of scale
The research should be twofold: it should assess performance and analyse the context. The complexities of the environment should not be underestimated.
Analysing the role and performance of the
Assessing the achievements of regulators:
What indicators (if any) are being used by regulators?
How do you measure the degree of autonomy?
It is not about public or private; both should be regulated
There are important questions to ask regarding the efficiency of regulators, their authority to set or influence pricing, and the accountability and transparency of regulators
Equally the involvement of consumers and their representation is an important considerationLondon Research Meeting, 2006
The major action points established in this meeting with specific regard to research included:
Presentations given by David Hall and Richard Franceys will now be outlined
The context in which The Water Dialogues is operating is continually shifting, both at national and international level. It is important to ask how these changes are reflected in the work and approach of The Water Dialogues? How do we expect the future to differ from the past?
It was proposed that Dialogues should look at context in light of the following: country history, international events and thinking, the presence of leaders within countries, the relationship between multistakeholder processes and politics, and the influence of research on policy-making
David Hall - Discussion
Investment and financing for the sector
David proposed that data should be collected to
reflect the following areas:
Finance - increasing access
This should be assessed via looking at the needs of the population and the sources of revenue available for services
Tariffs - are they fair and adequate?
This should be assessed via looking at what tariff income is and operating costs, whether tariffs are covering operating costs and allowing provision for future investment, and what charges are falling on households
Profitability - what are the rate of returns within each sector, locally and nationallyBerlin 2006
Researching Water Utilities: Investigating why organisations work
During this session, a range of analytical tools and academic perspectives were presented that could be useful in carrying out an institutional analysis. Discussion ranged from management understanding, teamwork, partnerships, research and technology, and bureaucracy.
Richard presented a range of information on how to analyse institutions - see The Water Dialogues website, Publications and Reports section.Berlin 2006
Richard Franceys - Discussion
1. What is the existing situation (including historical context)?
2. Where do we want to get to?
We have goals:
3. How do we get there?
FORMAT OF THE EVENT: