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Amateur Radio (Ham Radio) Technician License (Element 2) Instructor Dennis Harding (B3) KD7PSV. Agenda for Today. Introductions to Amateur Radio Objectives Course Outline Frequently asked questions about Amateur Radio License, Different licenses, and requirements

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Amateur Radio

(Ham Radio)

Technician License

(Element 2)

Instructor

Dennis Harding (B3)

KD7PSV

Copy Write Dennis Harding


Agenda for today
Agenda for Today

  • Introductions to Amateur Radio

    • Objectives

      • Course Outline

      • Frequently asked questions about Amateur Radio

      • License, Different licenses, and requirements

  • Radio Spectrum and Licensing (FCC Rules)

    • Objectives

      • Some Fundamentals about Waves

      • Radio Spectrum and How and Why it is regulated

        • Band Plans

        • Emission types

      • Principles of Amateur Radio

      • Licensing Procedure and Call Sign Allocation

      • Point of communication

      • Station Logs

      • Do’s and Don’t

  • Review – group test

  • Assignments for next week

Copy Write Dennis Harding


What we are going to cover
What we are going to cover.

  • Topics

    • Radio Spectrum, Licensing and Methods (09/22) T1,T2,T7A/B

    • Radio Phenomena (09/29) T2,T3,

    • Station Licensee and Control Op Duties (10/06) T4,T5

    • Good Operating Practices, Special Ops (10/13) T6,T9

    • Basic Electronics (10/20) T7

    • Good Engineering Practices (10/27) T8

    • Electrical, Antennas and RF Safety (11/03) T0

  • Review/Test

    • Review/Practice (11/10)

    • Test (11/17)

  • Home Study

    • Reading Assignments

    • Home Work

    • Morse Code

Copy Write Dennis Harding


Frequently asked questions

What is Amateur Radio?

Non-commercial / Not for profit

Self Training

Self Policing

Voluntary

Why is there Amateur Radio

Recognized as a valuable asset during disasters and emergency.

Advancement of the radio art.

Enhance international good will.

Produces Trained Radio Operators and Technicians

Who can get an Amateur License?

Anybody*

No Age Limit – You have to be able to take the test.

Why should you get an Amateur License?

Lots of reasons

Emergency Communications

It Fun

New Friends

You want to know more about electronics

Why not just get and FRS radio?

Short Range local communication only

Not monitored for emergencies

What does it cost to set up a shack?

HT: $50 to $500

Mobile Stations $300 - $1000

Base Stations $300 - $60K+

It’s not the radio, it is the accessories.

Do I have to learn Morse Code?

Maybe

Not required for Technician

Required for General, Extra and HF privileges on HF

FCC is reviewing Morse Code Requirement. Most likely be eliminated next year.

What about the math and theory

Basic math

You don’t need to be a rocket scientist

Do I need to be at every class?

No

Questions and Answers on the test are public domain

Read the book and study.

Frequently Asked Questions

Copy Write Dennis Harding


License requirements
License Requirements

Copy Write Dennis Harding



Question pool and question numbering
Question Pool and Question Numbering

  • Question Pool

    • ARRL maintains a pool of questions which are used on the test

    • Each Question is numbered using the following format: <c><s><g><nn> where

      • c = License (T – Technician, G – General, E Extra)

      • s = Sub-element

      • g = group

      • nn = question number

    • Example – T2B04

  • Technician Sub-elements

    • FCC Rules – 5 Questions

    • Methods of Communication – 2 Questions

    • Propagation – 2 Questions

    • Station Licensee Duties – 3 Questions

    • Control Operator Duties – 3 Questions

    • Good Operating Practices – 3 Questions

    • Basic Communication Electronics – 3 Questions

    • Good Engineering Practice – 6 Questions

    • Special Operations – 2 Questions

    • Electrical, Antenna Structure and RF Safety

Copy Write Dennis Harding


Exam preparation and administration
Exam Preparation and Administration

  • Test Location – Bothell Stake Center

  • Test Date and Time – Nov 17th, Start at 6:30pm – end at 9:00pm

  • Study the test questions

    • Question pool is available to the public

    • Answers are also available

Copy Write Dennis Harding



Federal communications commissions rules

Federal Communications Commissions Rules

Amateur Radio

Copy Write Dennis Harding


T1 fcc rules 5 exam questions 5 groups
T1 - FCC Rules[5 Exam Questions -- 5 Groups]

  • T1A Definition/purpose of Amateur Radio Service, Amateur-Satellite Service in places where the FCC regulates these services and elsewhere; Part 97 and FCC regulation of the amateur services; Penalties for unlicensed operation and for violating FCC rules; Prohibited transmissions.

  • T1B International aspect of Amateur Radio; International and domestic spectrum allocation; Spectrum sharing; International communications; reciprocal operation.

  • T1C All about license grants; Station and operator license grant structure including responsibilities, basic differences; Privileges of the various operator license classes; License grant term; Modifying and renewing license grant; Grace period.

  • T1D Qualifying for a license; General eligibility; Purpose of examination; Examination elements; Upgrading operator license class; Element credit; Provision for physical disabilities.

  • T1E Amateur station call sign systems including Sequential, Vanity and Special Event; ITU Regions; Call sign formats.

Copy Write Dennis Harding


T2 methods of communication 2 exam questions 2 groups
T2 – Methods of Communication[2 Exam Questions -- 2 Groups]

  • T2A How Radio Works; Electromagnetic spectrum; Magnetic/Electric Fields; Nature of Radio Waves; Wavelength; Frequency; Velocity; AC Sine wave/Hertz; Audio and Radio frequency.

  • T2B Frequency privileges granted to Technician class operators; Amateur service bands; Emission types and designators; Modulation principles; AM/FM/Single sideband/upper-lower, international Morse code (CW), RTTY, packet radio and data emission types; Full quieting.

Copy Write Dennis Harding


Fcc part 97
FCC Part 97

  • Title 47 governs all telecommunicatons in the US. There are 301 parts (Part 0-300)

  • Part 97 applies to Amateur Radio

  • Copy available at: http://www.arrl.org/FandES/field/regulations/rules-reg.html

Copy Write Dennis Harding


Five fundamental purposes of ham radio
Five Fundamental Purposes of Ham Radio

  • 1. Recognition and enhancement of the value of the amateur service to the public as a voluntary noncommercial communication service, particularly with respect to providing emergency communications

  • 2. Continuation and extension of the amateur’s proven ability to contribute to the advancement of the radio art.

  • 3. Encouragement and improvement of the amateur service through rules which provide for advancing skills in both the communications and technical phases of the art.

  • 4. Expansion of the existing reservoir within the amateur radio service of trained operators, technicians, and electronics experts.

  • 5. Continuation and extension of the amateur’s unique ability to enhance international goodwill.

Copy Write Dennis Harding



Some definitions

US Ruling Body - FCC rules are defined in Part 97

Amateur Service – a radio communication service, carried out by authorized individual without pecuniary interest.

Amateur Operator – A person granted a license for amateur service

Amateur Station – A station licensed for Amateur Service

Amateur Space Station – An amateur station over 50KM high

Interference – unwanted signals

Points of Communication – Kind of radio station you can communicate with: any amateur station

Unidentified Communications – communications from an unidentified source

Some Definitions

Copy Write Dennis Harding


Susan j helms kc7nhz flight engineer iss
Susan J. Helms, KC7NHZFlight Engineer - ISS

Copy Write Dennis Harding


Some fundamentals

Some Fundamentals

Common Terms

Copy Write Dennis Harding


Basic definitions
Basic Definitions

  • Current Types - Direct Current (dc)/Alternating Current (ac)

    • Batteries / House current

  • Units for Current – ampere (amp/ A)

  • Units for Potential – Volts (V)

  • Units for Power – Watts (W)

  • Characteristics of a AC wave assuming a frequency of 2 Hertz:

Cycle

Amplitude

Copy Write Dennis Harding

1 second


Copy Write Dennis Harding

Lower Frequency – Longer Wavelength


Wave terms
Wave Terms

  • Frequency (f) – Rate at which source disturbance oscillates through one complete cycle (Hertz – Hz sec –1)

  • Wavelength (λ) – Distance between two identical points on adjacent waves or distance traveled by wave in one cycle. (Length cm, mm, m)

  • Velocity (v) – EM waves travel at speed of light, (v  c = 3 x 108 m/s*)

    λ = v/f

    λ(m)  300/f(MHz)

Copy Write Dennis Harding


Propagation velocity v
Propagation Velocity (v)

  • Speed of light in free space (c): 3  108 m/s

  • In dielectric and plasma the velocity of propagation is lower: air = 2.999565096x108 m/s

Copy Write Dennis Harding


Wave terms cont
Wave Terms – Cont.

  • Amplitude (a) – Maximum displacement of wave from constant reference value.

  • Period (T) – Time to complete one cycle (time, sec)

T = 1/f

Copy Write Dennis Harding


Phase

advanced

Phase is measured in either degrees or radians.

radians = (2p/360o) x degreesdegrees = (360o/2p) x radians

57.3o per radian

Positive phase shift wave is advancedNegative phase shift wave is retarded

Phase (Ф)

  • Identical Waves shifted either ahead or behind due to distance separations or time delay.

  • Pick one as a reference and determine phase difference or phase shift between the two.

Copy Write Dennis Harding


Callsign groups
Callsign Groups

All US Callsigns start with A, K, N or W

Copy Write Dennis Harding


Call districts
Call Districts

Copy Write Dennis Harding


Do you need to keep a log
Do you need to keep a Log?

  • Technically no.

  • It’s good to keep a log

  • Free logging software “n1mm”

Copy Write Dennis Harding


Band plans

Band Plans

Technician

Technician + Morse Code

General Class

Extra Class

Copy Write Dennis Harding



2300 2310 2390 2450

13cm

1240 1300

23cm

902 928

33cm

420 430 5 MHz repeater frequency separation (Split) 450

70cm

222 219-220 MHz used for point-to-point digital links 225

1.25m

144 600 kHz repeater frequency separation (Split) 148

2m

50 54

6m

 No Code Technicians Have All Privileges On The Above Bands 

Copy Write Dennis Harding


28 28.100 28.300 28.500 29.0 29.7

10m

21 21.100 21.200 21.450

15m

7 7.100 7.150 7.300

40m

3.5 3.675 3.725 4.0

80m

Notes

Bolded information appears in question pool

Technician Licensees may use up to 1500 watts PEP

Technician + HF Licensees may use up to 1500 watts PEP and 200 watts PEP on the HF bands

Copy Write Dennis Harding


Emission privileges modulation

Without Morse Code

Single Side Band (SSB)

Amplitude Modulation (AM)

Frequency Modulation (FM)

Slow Scan Television (SSTV)

Amateur TV

Digital

RTTY

PSK31

PACTOR (I, II,III)

With Morse Code

Carrier Wave (CW)

Single Side Band (SSB)

Amplitude Modulation (AM)

Frequency Modulation (FM)

Slow Scan Television (SSTV)

Amateur TV

Digital

RTTY

PSK31

PACTOR (I,II,III)

Emission Privileges(modulation)

Copy Write Dennis Harding


Amplitude modulation
Amplitude Modulation

An unmodulated RF

carrier wave

A carrier wave AM

modulated with a

simple audio tone

Copy Write Dennis Harding


Amplitude modulation1
Amplitude Modulation

An unmodulated RF

carrier requires narrow

bandwidth

Modulation of the carrier

creates sidebands. This

requires more bandwidth.

Transmitter power is spread across this bandwidth

Copy Write Dennis Harding


Am and ssb
AM and SSB

The carrier contains no

audio information.

The sidebands contain

duplicate audio information

By filtering out the carrier and one sideband,

we save spectrum and concentrate our RF

energy into a narrower bandwidth. SSB is

therefore more efficient.

Copy Write Dennis Harding


Frequency modulation
Frequency Modulation

Unmodulated carrier, full power at all times

Waveform of modulating signal

Modulated carrier with

frequency deviation and

constant amplitude

Copy Write Dennis Harding


Frequency modulation1
Frequency Modulation

  • FM transmitters operate at full power at all times, even when you are not talking

  • When an FM transmitter over-modulates, the transmitted signal becomes so wide (bandwidth) it may interfere with adjacent channels. This is called over-deviation

Copy Write Dennis Harding


Psk31 digital mode
PSK31 Digital Mode

Provides VERY EFFICIENT keyboard to keyboard chat capability. PSK31 is not error-corrected.

Copy Write Dennis Harding


What amateur do s and don t

What we can do

Operate an amateur station

Remote Control of Model Craft

Operate stations in other countries (reciprocal operating agreements)*

What we cannot do

Broadcast to the general public

Use encrypted messages

Broadcast music*

Get Paid for Services*

Malicious Interference

Send False or Deceptive Signals

Transmit unidentified communications*

Use obscene language

Use for business*

Communicate with non-amateur stations*

What amateur do’s and don’t?

Copy Write Dennis Harding


Frequency sharing
Frequency Sharing

  • A band of frequencies allocated to different services, of the same category, have equal rights to access.

  • Goal - Minimize Interference

  • Categories: Primary and Secondary

    • Primary stations are protected from interference

    • Secondary stations must not cause harmful interference

  • Restriction Areas

    • Military Bases

    • 70cm Band

      • No transmission at 420-430MHz above line “A” (50 mi from Canada

Copy Write Dennis Harding


Fcc line a
FCC Line A

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Group test

Group Test

Copy Write Dennis Harding


T1a01 who makes and enforces the rules for the amateur service in the united states
T1A01 Who makes and enforces the rules for the amateur service in the United States?

  • A. The Congress of the United States

  • B. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC)

  • C. The Volunteer Examiner Coordinators (VECs)

  • D. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)

Copy Write Dennis Harding


T1a01 who makes and enforces the rules for the amateur service in the united states1
T1A01 Who makes and enforces the rules for the amateur service in the United States?

  • A. The Congress of the United States

  • B. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC)

    • C. The Volunteer Examiner Coordinators (VECs)

    • D. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)

  • Copy Write Dennis Harding


    T1a02 what are two of the five fundamental purposes for the amateur service in the united states
    T1A02 What are two of the five fundamental purposes for the amateur service in the United States?

    • A. To protect historical radio data, and help the public understand radio history

    • B. To help foreign countries improve communication and technical skills, and encourage visits from foreign hams

    • C. To modernize radio schematic drawings, and increase the pool of electrical drafting people

    • D. To increase the number of trained radio operators and electronics experts, and improve international goodwill

    Copy Write Dennis Harding


    T1a02 what are two of the five fundamental purposes for the amateur service in the united states1
    T1A02 What are two of the five fundamental purposes for the amateur service in the United States?

    • A. To protect historical radio data, and help the public understand radio history

    • B. To help foreign countries improve communication and technical skills, and encourage visits from foreign hams

    • C. To modernize radio schematic drawings, and increase the pool of electrical drafting people

  • D. To increase the number of trained radio operators and electronics experts, and improve international goodwill

  • Copy Write Dennis Harding


    T1A06 When is the transmission of codes or ciphers allowed to hide the meaning of a message transmitted by an amateur station?

    • A. Only during contests

    • B. Only during nationally declared emergencies

    • C. Codes and ciphers may not be used to obscure the meaning of a message, although there are special exceptions

    • D. Only when frequencies above 1280 MHz are used

    Copy Write Dennis Harding


    T1A06 When is the transmission of codes or ciphers allowed to hide the meaning of a message transmitted by an amateur station?

    • A. Only during contests

    • B. Only during nationally declared emergencies

  • C. Codes and ciphers may not be used to obscure the meaning of a message, although there are special exceptions

    • D. Only when frequencies above 1280 MHz are used

  • Copy Write Dennis Harding


    T1a11 when may an amateur station transmit unidentified communications
    T1A11 When may an amateur station transmit unidentified communications?

    • A. Only during brief tests not meant as messages

    • B. Only when they do not interfere with others

    • C. Only when sent from a space station or to control a model craft

    • D. Only during two-way or third-party communications

    Copy Write Dennis Harding


    T1a11 when may an amateur station transmit unidentified communications1
    T1A11 When may an amateur station transmit unidentified communications?

    • A. Only during brief tests not meant as messages

    • B. Only when they do not interfere with others

  • C. Only when sent from a space station or to control a model craft

    • D. Only during two-way or third-party communications

  • Copy Write Dennis Harding


    T1b01 what are the frequency limits of the 6 meter band in itu region 2
    T1B01 What are the frequency limits of the 6-meter band in ITU Region 2?

    • A. 52.0 - 54.5 MHz

    • B. 50.0 - 54.0 MHz

    • C. 50.1 - 52.1 MHz

    • D. 50.0 - 56.0 MHz

    Copy Write Dennis Harding


    T1b01 what are the frequency limits of the 6 meter band in itu region 21
    T1B01 What are the frequency limits of the 6-meter band in ITU Region 2?

    • A. 52.0 - 54.5 MHz

  • B. 50.0 - 54.0 MHz

    • C. 50.1 - 52.1 MHz

    • D. 50.0 - 56.0 MHz

  • Copy Write Dennis Harding


    T1b06 what are the frequency limits of the 23 centimeter band in itu region 2
    T1B06 What are the frequency limits of the 23-centimeter band in ITU Region 2?

    • A. 1260 - 1270 MHz

    • B. 1240 - 1300 MHz

    • C. 1270 - 1295 MHz

    • D. 1240 - 1246 MHz

    Copy Write Dennis Harding


    T1b06 what are the frequency limits of the 23 centimeter band in itu region 21
    T1B06 What are the frequency limits of the 23-centimeter band in ITU Region 2?

    • A. 1260 - 1270 MHz

  • B. 1240 - 1300 MHz

    • C. 1270 - 1295 MHz

    • D. 1240 - 1246 MHz

  • Copy Write Dennis Harding


    T1C03 How soon after you pass the examination elements required for your first Amateur Radio license may you transmit?

    • A. Immediately

    • B. 30 days after the test date

    • C. As soon as the FCC grants you a license and the data appears in the FCC's ULS data base

    • D. As soon as you receive your license from the FCC

    Copy Write Dennis Harding


    T1C03 How soon after you pass the examination elements required for your first Amateur Radio license may you transmit?

    • A. Immediately

    • B. 30 days after the test date

  • C. As soon as the FCC grants you a license and the data appears in the FCC's ULS data base

    • D. As soon as you receive your license from the FCC

  • Copy Write Dennis Harding


    T1d01 who can become an amateur licensee in the us
    T1D01 Who can become an amateur licensee in the US? required for your first Amateur Radio license may you transmit?

    • A. Anyone except a representative of a foreign government

    • B. Only a citizen of the United States

    • C. Anyone except an employee of the US government

    • D. Anyone

    Copy Write Dennis Harding


    T1d01 who can become an amateur licensee in the us1
    T1D01 Who can become an amateur licensee in the US? required for your first Amateur Radio license may you transmit?

    • A. Anyone except a representative of a foreign government

      • B. Only a citizen of the United States

      • C. Anyone except an employee of the US government

      • D. Anyone

    Copy Write Dennis Harding


    T1e02 what letters must be used for the first letter in us amateur call signs
    T1E02 What letters must be used for the first letter in US amateur call signs?

    • A. K, N, U and W

    • B. A, K, N and W

    • C. A, B, C and D

    • D. A, N, V and W

    Copy Write Dennis Harding


    T1e02 what letters must be used for the first letter in us amateur call signs1
    T1E02 What letters must be used for the first letter in US amateur call signs?

    • A. K, N, U and W

  • B. A, K, N and W

    • C. A, B, C and D

    • D. A, N, V and W

  • Copy Write Dennis Harding


    What bands are these frequencies
    What bands are these frequencies? amateur call signs?

    • 3.975 MHz _______ meter band

    • 21.25 MHz _______ meter band

    • 145.21 MHz _______ meter band

    • 7,233 kHz _______ meter band

    • 28.350 MHz _______ meter band

    80/75

    15

    2

    40

    10

    Copy Write Dennis Harding


    How is the wavelength of a radio wave amateur call signs?

    related to its frequency?

    Copy Write Dennis Harding


    Next week
    Next Week amateur call signs?

    • Radio Phenomena

      • Propagation

      • Useful Tools

    • Home work

      • Read Chapters 1-3 of “Now You Are Talking!”

      • Review Questions in sections T1,T2 and T7A/B

      • Practice Exam 1

    Copy Write Dennis Harding


    Backup slides

    Backup Slides amateur call signs?

    Copy Write Dennis Harding


    Current amateur license classes and exam requirements
    Current Amateur License Classes and Exam Requirements amateur call signs?

    Copy Write Dennis Harding


    Wavelength vs frequency
    Wavelength vs Frequency amateur call signs?

    • The distance a radio wave travels in one cycle is called wavelength

    V+

    One Cycle

    0V

    time

    V-

    One Wavelength

    Copy Write Dennis Harding


    Frequency to wavelength conversion

    300 amateur call signs?

    freq (MHz)

    Wavelength =

    Frequency to Wavelength Conversion

    • To convert from frequency to wavelength in meters:

    Frequency and wavelength are inversely proportional – as one increases, the other decreases

    Longer (wavelength) – Lower (frequency)

    Copy Write Dennis Harding


    Copy Write Dennis Harding amateur call signs?


    Copy Write Dennis Harding amateur call signs?


    Itu regions
    ITU Regions amateur call signs?

    Copy Write Dennis Harding


    Copy Write Dennis Harding amateur call signs?


    Copy Write Dennis Harding amateur call signs?


    Copy Write Dennis Harding amateur call signs?


    28 28.100 28.300 amateur call signs?28.500 29.0 29.7

    10m

    21 21.100 21.200 21.450

    15m

    7 7.100 7.150 7.300

    40m

    3.5 3.675 3.725 4.0

    80m

    Notes

    Bolded information appears in question pool

    Technician Licensees may use up to 1500 watts PEP

    Technician + HF Licensees may use up to 1500 watts PEP and 200 watts PEP on the HF bands

    Copy Write Dennis Harding


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