59 y o male with ulnar sided wrist pain
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Tfc tear
TFC Tear

  • Palmer classification for triangular fibrocartilage complex abnormalities

    Class 1: Traumatic

  • A - Central perforation

  • B - Ulnar avulsion

  • C - Distal avulsion

  • D - Radial avulsion with or without sigmoid notch fracture

    Class 2: Degenerative (ulnocarpal abutment syndrome) stage

  • A - TFCC wear

  • B - TFCC wear with lunate and/or ulnar chondromalacia

  • C - TFCC perforation with lunate and/or ulnar chondromalacia

  • D - TFCC perforation with lunate and/or ulnar chondromalacia and LT ligament perforation

  • E - TFCC perforation with lunate and/or ulnar chondromalacia, LT ligament perforation, and ulnocarpal arthritis








Absent vs atrophic piriformis muscle
Absent vs. Atrophic Piriformis muscle? hypertrophy?

  • Piriformis muscle might be absent and there might be variations in origin and insertion sites of some muscles and their relation with regional nerves of this region.

  • Bannister L, Berry M, Collins P, Dyson M, Dussek J : Muscles of the thigh and gluteal region. In. Williams P (ed): GrayÕs Anatomy. 38 th ed. London: Churchill Livingstone, 1995 : 875-878

  • 2) Lee CS, Tsai TL : The relation of the sciatic nerve to the piriformis muscle. Taiwan I Hsueh Hui Tsa Chih 1974; 73 : 75-80.





Achilles avulsion
Achilles Avulsion hypertrophy?

  • Greek mythology relates that the legendary warrior Achilles was made invincible by his mother Thetis, who dipped him in the River Styx while holding him by his heel. Because his heel was never immersed, it remained his one area of vulnerability. After the fall of Troy, Achilles met his demise when he was shot in the heel by Paris, whose arrow was guided by the Greek god Apollo. This is the derivation of the term "Achilles tendon."


Achilles avulsion1
Achilles Avulsion hypertrophy?

  • However, Achilles avulsion is considered rare, usually occuring at the calc. tubercle.

  • Possible causes:

    • Traumatic dorsiflexion in maximally plantar flexed foot

    • Contraction of triceps surae during knee extention in a sprint

    • Direct blow

The heel of achilles: calcaneal avulsion fracture from a gunshot wound.Cooper DE, Heckman JD Foot Ankle. 1989 Feb;9(4):204-6






Thrower s shoulder
Thrower’s Shoulder hypertrophy?


Elbow pain 55 yr old man
Elbow pain hypertrophy?55 yr old man

pre

post


Elbow pain 55 yr old man1
Elbow pain hypertrophy?55 yr old man

BicipitoradialBursa


Cubital bursae
Cubital Bursae hypertrophy?

  • bicipitoradial bursa

  • interosseous bursa

Bicipitoradial Bursitis: MR Imaging Findings in Eight Patients and Anatomic Data from Contrast Material Opacification of Bursae Followed by Routine Radiography and MR Imaging in Cadavers1

Abdalla Y. Skaf, MD, Robert D. Boutin, MD, Robert Weiber M. Dantas, MD, Andrew W. Hooper, MD, Claus Muhle, MD, David S. Chou, MD, Nittaya Lektrakul, MD, Debra J. Trudell, RA, Parviz Haghighi, MD and Donald L. Resnick, MD 1

From the Departments of Radiology (A.Y.S., R.D.B., R.W.M.D., A.W.H., C.M., D.S.C., N.L., D.J.T., D.L.R.) and Pathology (P.H.), Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University of California San Diego, 3350 La Jolla Village Dr, San Diego, CA 92161.


Bicipitoradial bursa
Bicipitoradial Bursa hypertrophy?

  • reduces friction between the biceps tendon and the radial tuberosity

  • Bursitis

    • Repetitive mechanical trauma

    • Infection

    • Inflammatory arthropathy

    • Chemical synovitis

    • Bone proliferation


Elbow pain
Elbow Pain hypertrophy?

Torn Biceps Tendon

Cubital Bursitis




Posterior interosseous nerve syndrome
Posterior Interosseous Nerve Syndrome of the radial nerve

  • Compression of the deep branch of the radial nerve

    • innervates multiple extensor muscles

      • extensor indicis proprius, extensor digiti quinti, extensor carpi ulnaris, abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis, and extensor digitorum communis muscles


34 yo hockey player
34 yo Hockey player of the radial nerve



33 yo woman of the radial nerve


33 yo woman of the radial nerve

  • osteopenia, cartilage loss, and erosions, subluxation

Rheumatoid Arthritis


Same patient
Same patient of the radial nerve


Oa pattern
OA pattern of the radial nerve

  • Superolateral joint space narrowing

  • Marginal osteophytes

  • Eburnation and subchondral cystic change


Why the early oa
Why the early OA? of the radial nerve

Femoral Acetabular Impingment?

Crystal deposition disorders?




Suprascapular nerve entrapment
Suprascapular Nerve Entrapment pull-ups

  • At suprascapular notch, will involve both the supra- and infraspinatus muscles

  • At the spinoglenoid notch, involves only the infraspinatus

  • Most common cause is a ganglion cyst from a superior labral tear



36 year old man with arm and hand numbness for one day1
36 year old man with arm and hand numbness for one day pull-ups

  • Patchy scattered foci and muscular edema

  • Considerations

    • Parsonage Turner syndrome

    • Quadrilateral space syndrome


Post op day 1 from ventral hernia repair
Post op day 1 from ventral hernia repair pull-ups

  • Other considerations

    • Positioning neuropathy


T2 pull-ups

T1-PRE

POST


T2 pull-ups

T1 PRE

T1 POST


Soft tissue mass volar distal phalanx
SOFT TISSUE MASS: VOLAR DISTAL PHALANX pull-ups

  • Ganglion cyst 50% to 70%

  • Hemangioma/vascular malformation

  • Giant cell tumor

  • Glomus tumor

  • Mucoid (epidermoid) cyst

  • Epidermoid

  • Nerve sheath tumor


Benign tumors of fibrous tissue origin
Benign tumors of fibrous tissue origin pull-ups

  • Nodular fasciitis

  • Neurofibroma

  • Schwannoma

  • Fibrous histiocytoma

  • Fibroma/ fibromatosis


Nodular fasciitis
Nodular fasciitis pull-ups

  • Most common soft tissue lesion originating from fibrous tissue

  • 50% arise in the upper extremity, m/c volar forearm

  • Present as a rapidly growing mass

Enzinger FM, Weiss SW. Soft tissue tumors. St Louis: Mosby, 1995.


Nodular fasciitis1
Nodular fasciitis pull-ups

  • Histologically often misdiagnosed because of its rapid growth, increased cellularity and mitotic activity


Nodular fasciitis2
Nodular fasciitis pull-ups

  • Thee subtypes

    • Subcutaneous

      • Subcutanous nodule

    • Intramuscular

      • Large, deep, mimics a soft tissue malignancy

    • Intermuscular

      • Irregular/ stellate appearance, mimics inflammatory lesion


Mr characteristics
MR characteristics pull-ups

  • Variable depending on the amount of collagen, cellularity, and mucin.

  • Subcutaneous lesions to occur in younger patients and exhibit myxoid histology and increased T2 signal.

Wang et al., Nodular fasciitis: correlation of MRI findings and histopathology.Skeletal Radiol. 2002 Mar;31(3):155-61.


69 y o male with possible fracture of 1 st proximal phalanx and gout of 2 nd digit
69 y.o. male with possible fracture of 1 pull-upsst proximal phalanx and gout of 2nd digit.

Axial T1 FS

Axial T1 FS/Gd

Axial T2 FS

Axial T1


69 y o male with possible fracture of 1 st proximal phalanx and gout of 2 nd digit1
69 y.o. male with possible fracture of 1 pull-upsst proximal phalanx and gout of 2nd digit.

Cor T2 FS

Cor T1 FS/Gd


69 y o male with possible fracture of 1 st proximal phalanx and gout of 2 nd digit2
69 y.o. male with possible fracture of 1 pull-upsst proximal phalanx and gout of 2nd digit.

Sag T1


69 y o male with possible fracture of 1 st proximal phalanx and gout of 2 nd digit3
69 y.o. male with possible fracture of 1 pull-upsst proximal phalanx and gout of 2nd digit.

Sag T1


69 y o male with possible fracture of 1 st proximal phalanx and gout of 2 nd digit4
69 y.o. male with possible fracture of 1 pull-upsst proximal phalanx and gout of 2nd digit.

Sag T1


69 y o male with possible fracture of 1 st proximal phalanx and gout of 2 nd digit5
69 y.o. male with possible fracture of 1 pull-upsst proximal phalanx and gout of 2nd digit.

Sag T1 FS/Gd


69 y o male with possible fracture of 1 st proximal phalanx and gout of 2 nd digit6
69 y.o. male with possible fracture of 1 pull-upsst proximal phalanx and gout of 2nd digit.

Sag T1 FS/Gd


69 y o male with possible fracture of 1 st proximal phalanx and gout of 2 nd digit7
69 y.o. male with possible fracture of 1 pull-upsst proximal phalanx and gout of 2nd digit.

Sag T1 FS/Gd


Gout pull-ups

  • MRI of Tophi

    • Low on T1WI

    • On T2WI usually variable but contain low-signal regions

    • High signal on post Gd

Yu et al, MR imaging of tophaceous gout. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1997 Feb;168(2):523-7.

Weishaupt et al, MR imaging of inflammatory joint diseases of the foot and ankle.Skeletal Radiol. 1999 Dec;28(12):663-9.


20 yo minor league baseball player with history of aspergillus infection 1 yr ago. Recurrent pain and swelling in the hand and wrist.

Axial T1

Axial T1FS/Gd


20 yo minor league baseball player with history of aspergillus infection 1 yr ago. Recurrent pain and swelling in the hand and wrist.

Axial T2 FS


20 yo minor league baseball player with history of aspergillus infection 1 yr ago. Recurrent pain and swelling in the hand and wrist.


20 yo minor league baseball player with history of aspergillus infection 1 yr ago. Recurrent pain and swelling in the hand and wrist.


20 yo minor league baseball player with history of aspergillus infection 1 yr ago. Recurrent pain and swelling in the hand and wrist.


20 yo minor league baseball player with history of aspergillus infection 1 yr ago. Recurrent pain and swelling in the hand and wrist.


20 yo minor league baseball player with history of aspergillus infection 1 yr ago. Recurrent pain and swelling in the hand and wrist.


Chronic infection and synovial hypertrophy
Chronic Infection and Synovial Hypertrophy aspergillus infection 1 yr ago. Recurrent pain and swelling in the hand and wrist.

  • D.Dx.

    • Fungus

    • TB ( Mycobacterium marinum)


Mycobacterium infection
Mycobacterium Infection aspergillus infection 1 yr ago. Recurrent pain and swelling in the hand and wrist.

Recurrent Mycobacterium marinum tenosynovitis of the wrist mimicking extraarticular synovial chondromatosis on MR images.Lee EY, Rubin DA, Brown DM.

Skeletal Radiol. 2004 Jul;33(7):405-8. Epub 2004 May 04.

Tenosynovitis caused by atypical mycobacterial infections may produce rice bodies within affected tendon sheaths.

…. the flexor tendons within the carpal tunnel in which the rice bodies were mistaken for synovial chondromatosis on MR images

Horseshoe Abscess

Diagnosis of Bone and Joint Disorders, Resnick

Hand – Pathways of infection, pg 2399


21yo f with hand pain history of bilateral tha and tka
21yo F with hand pain. History of bilateral THA and TKA. aspergillus infection 1 yr ago. Recurrent pain and swelling in the hand and wrist.


21yo f with hand pain history of bilateral tha and tka1
21yo F with hand pain. History of bilateral THA and TKA. aspergillus infection 1 yr ago. Recurrent pain and swelling in the hand and wrist.


21yo f with hand pain history of bilateral tha and tka2
21yo F with hand pain. History of bilateral THA and TKA. aspergillus infection 1 yr ago. Recurrent pain and swelling in the hand and wrist.


21yo f with hand pain history of bilateral tha and tka3
21yo F with hand pain. History of bilateral THA and TKA. aspergillus infection 1 yr ago. Recurrent pain and swelling in the hand and wrist.


21yo f with hand pain history of bilateral tha and tka4
21yo F with hand pain. History of bilateral THA and TKA. aspergillus infection 1 yr ago. Recurrent pain and swelling in the hand and wrist.


21yo f with hand pain history of bilateral tha and tka5
21yo F with hand pain. History of bilateral THA and TKA. aspergillus infection 1 yr ago. Recurrent pain and swelling in the hand and wrist.


Juvenile chronic arthritis
Juvenile Chronic Arthritis aspergillus infection 1 yr ago. Recurrent pain and swelling in the hand and wrist.

Portrait of a Youth

Botticelli, 1483


Juvenile onset adult type ra
Juvenile –onset adult type RA aspergillus infection 1 yr ago. Recurrent pain and swelling in the hand and wrist.

  • Female

  • >10yrs

  • Polyarticular

  • Possible subQ nodules and vasculitis

  • Seropostive for RA

Diagnosis of Bone and Joint Disorders, 3rd ed. D Resnick, editor. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, 1995.


Juvenile onset adult type ra1
Juvenile –onset adult type RA aspergillus infection 1 yr ago. Recurrent pain and swelling in the hand and wrist.

  • MCP and IP joints of hand

  • Wrist

  • Knee

  • MTP and IP joints of foot

  • Cervical spine

  • Hip

  • Shoulder


Juvenile onset adult type ra2
Juvenile –onset adult type RA aspergillus infection 1 yr ago. Recurrent pain and swelling in the hand and wrist.

  • Soft tissue swelling

  • Osteoporosis

  • Periostitis

  • Erosions, especially in the absence of joint space loss

  • Possible joint space loss

  • Atlanto Axial Subluxation

  • Epiphyseal compression fractures

  • Joint Subluxation

  • Growth disturbances


73 y o f with wrist pain and stiffness
73 y.o F with wrist pain and stiffness aspergillus infection 1 yr ago. Recurrent pain and swelling in the hand and wrist.


73 y o f with wrist pain and stiffness1
73 y.o F with wrist pain and stiffness aspergillus infection 1 yr ago. Recurrent pain and swelling in the hand and wrist.


73 y o f with wrist pain and stiffness2
73 y.o F with wrist pain and stiffness aspergillus infection 1 yr ago. Recurrent pain and swelling in the hand and wrist.


Rheumatiod arthritis vs psoraisis
Rheumatiod Arthritis vs Psoraisis aspergillus infection 1 yr ago. Recurrent pain and swelling in the hand and wrist.


Interesting wrist case
Interesting Wrist Case aspergillus infection 1 yr ago. Recurrent pain and swelling in the hand and wrist.


  • Dorsal Midcarpal Instability aspergillus infection 1 yr ago. Recurrent pain and swelling in the hand and wrist.

  • Carpal Instability Non Dissociative (CIND)


UCSD Bone Conference aspergillus infection 1 yr ago. Recurrent pain and swelling in the hand and wrist.

June 3, 2005

Jeremy Kuniyoshi


57 yo M with increasing thigh mass X 2-3 months aspergillus infection 1 yr ago. Recurrent pain and swelling in the hand and wrist.

Further Hx:

Infected hematoma post cath many yrs ago

On anticoag for prosthetic valves (INR 1.6)


57 yo M with increasing thigh mass X 2-3 months aspergillus infection 1 yr ago. Recurrent pain and swelling in the hand and wrist.


COR T1 aspergillus infection 1 yr ago. Recurrent pain and swelling in the hand and wrist.

SAG STIR

AX PD FS

57 yo M with increasing thigh mass X 2-3 months


T1 POST aspergillus infection 1 yr ago. Recurrent pain and swelling in the hand and wrist.

T1 FS POST

AX T1 POST

T1 FS POST


57 yo M with increasing thigh mass X 2-3 months aspergillus infection 1 yr ago. Recurrent pain and swelling in the hand and wrist.


Surgical Pathology Report: aspergillus infection 1 yr ago. Recurrent pain and swelling in the hand and wrist.

Fibrous Capsule with areas of granulation tissue, multinucleated giant cells, areas of necrosis, and hemorrhage with clot c/w pseudoaneurysm


Fig. 1A–C aspergillus infection 1 yr ago. Recurrent pain and swelling in the hand and wrist.MRI of the left knee.

A Coronal

inversion recovery (TR 2000 / TE 18 /

TI 150) image shows a large ovoid mass

within the popliteal fossa, which is predominantly

of high signal intensity. There is no

edema in the adjacent muscles.

B Sagittal

gradient echo (TR 500/TE 16/flip angle

30°) image shows multiple low-signal foci

within the mass consistent with calcifications.

Note also the mass merging with the

massively dilated popliteal vein behind the

distal femur (arrows). The uniform high

signal within the dilated vein is typical of

slow venous flow.

C Axial T2-weighted

(TR 2000/TE 80) image shows intimate relationship

of the mass to the popliteal artery

and vein (arrow), interposed between the

mass and the tibial plateau, although no direct

communication could be identified

Popliteal vascular malformation simulating a soft tissue sarcoma

Wambeek N, Munk PL, O'Connell JX, Lee MJ, Masri BA. Skeletal Radiol 1999;28(9):532-5.

Fig. 2A, B Digital subtraction angiogram of the left leg. A Arterial phase oblique image of the popliteal artery demonstrates a direct communication between the lumen of the artery and the mass (arrow), consistent with a pseudoaneurysm. B Late venous phase image shows large slow-flow venous channels (arrowheads) within the mass, draining into the enlarged popliteal vein (arrows)


51 yo M with R Shoulder pain s/p humeral head replacement aspergillus infection 1 yr ago. Recurrent pain and swelling in the hand and wrist.

4-25-04 HHR Converted to TSA

10-28-03


51 yo M with R Shoulder pain s/p humeral head replacement aspergillus infection 1 yr ago. Recurrent pain and swelling in the hand and wrist.

6-23-04 Glenoid component dislocated

5-12-04 Glenoid component well located


51 yo M with R Shoulder pain s/p humeral head replacement aspergillus infection 1 yr ago. Recurrent pain and swelling in the hand and wrist.

6-2-05


Total Shoulder Arthroplasty: Glenoid Component aspergillus infection 1 yr ago. Recurrent pain and swelling in the hand and wrist.

    - indications are controversial;

    - this needs to be performed prior to insertion of the humeral component;

    - increased glenoid loosening rates from eccentric loading & excessive glenoid wear can be expected with w/ rotator cuff arthropathy

Glenoid loosening:

          - radiolucencies around the glenoid component will eventually be seen in 60% of patients;

          - some authors note that in many cases radiographs may fail to show loosening because the radiographic beam is not perpendicular to the bone-component interface;

From: http://www.wheelessonline.com/ortho/total_shoulder_arthroplasty_glenoid_component


Conversion of painful hemiarthroplasty to total shoulder arthroplasty: Long-term results

Raymond M. Carroll, MD, Rolando Izquierdo, MD, Michael Vazquez, MD, Theodore A. Blaine, MD, William N. Levine, MD, and Louis U. Bigliani, MD, New York, NY

“revision of a failed HHR to a TSA is a salvage procedure whose results are inferior to those of primary TSA…”

From: J Shoulder Elbow Surg Nov/Dec 2004


27yo man with palpable nodules in foot
27yo man with palpable nodules in foot arthroplasty: Long-term results


27yo man with palpable nodules in foot1
27yo man with palpable nodules in foot arthroplasty: Long-term results


27yo man with palpable nodules in foot2
27yo man with palpable nodules in foot arthroplasty: Long-term results


27yo man with palpable nodules in foot3
27yo man with palpable nodules in foot arthroplasty: Long-term results


27yo man with palpable nodules in foot4
27yo man with palpable nodules in foot arthroplasty: Long-term results


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