Phylogeny and systematics
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Phylogeny and Systematics. By: Ashley Yamachika. Biologists use systematics They use systematics as an analytical approach to understanding the diversity and relationships of organisms, both present-day and extinct.

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Phylogeny and systematics

Phylogeny and Systematics

By: Ashley Yamachika


Phylogeny and systematics

  • Biologists use systematics

    • They use systematics as an analytical approach to understanding the diversity and relationships of organisms, both present-day and extinct


Phylogeny and systematics

  • Systematists use morphological, biochemical, and molecular comparisons to infer evolutionary relationships

  • Phylogenies are based on common ancestries inferred from fossil morphological and molecular evidence.


The fossil record

The Fossil Record

  • Sedimentary Rocks…

    • Are the richest source of fossils

    • Are deposited into layers called strata

    • Based on the sequence in which fossils have accumulated in such strata

    • Fossils reveal characteristics that may have been lost over time


Radiometric dating

Radiometric Dating

  • Measures the decay of radioactive isotopes in terms of half-life

    • Half-life is the amount of time it takes for ½ the amount of a radioactive isotope to decay


Morphological and molecular homologies

Morphological and Molecular Homologies

  • Phylogenetic history can be inferred from certain morphological and molecular similarities among living organisms

  • Organisms that share very similar morphologies or similar DNA sequences

    • Are likely to be more closely related than organisms with vastly different structures or sequences


Phylogeny and systematics

  • Convergent Evolution occurs when similar environmental pressures and natural selection produce similar (analogous) adaptations in organisms from different evolutionary lineages

  • Analogous Structures or molecular sequences that evolved independently are also called homoplasies


Parallel evolution

Parallel Evolution

  • When both descendants are similar in a particular respect, evolution is defined as parallel if the ancestors considered were also similar, and convergent if they were not


Divergent evolution

Divergent Evolution

  • The diversification of an ancestral group into two or more species in different habitats is called divergent evolution.

  • When it involves the formation of a large number of species to occupy different niches is called an adaptive radiation.


Phylogeny and systematics

  • Phylogeneticsystematics connects classification with evolutionary history

  • Taxonomy

    • Is the ordered division of organisms into categories based on a set of characteristics used to assess similarities and differences.


Binomial nomenclature

Binomial Nomenclature

  • Is the two-part format of the scientific name of an organism

  • Was developed by Carolus Linnaeus

  • The binomial name of an organism or scientific epithet

    • Is latinized

    • Is the genus and species


  • Hierarchical classification

    Panthera

    pardus

    Panthera

    pardus

    Panthera

    pardus

    Species

    Species

    Species

    Panthera

    Panthera

    Panthera

    Genus

    Genus

    Genus

    Felidae

    Felidae

    Felidae

    Family

    Family

    Family

    Carnivora

    Carnivora

    Carnivora

    Order

    Order

    Order

    Mammalia

    Mammalia

    Mammalia

    Class

    Class

    Class

    Chordata

    Chordata

    Chordata

    Phylum

    Phylum

    Phylum

    Animalia

    Animalia

    Animalia

    Kingdom

    Kingdom

    Kingdom

    Eukarya

    Eukarya

    Eukarya

    Domain

    Domain

    Domain

    Hierarchical Classification


    Phylogeny and systematics

    • Systematists depict evolutionary relationships

      • In branching phylogenetic trees


    Phylogeny and systematics

    • Phylogeneticsystematics informs the construction of phylogenetic trees based on shared characteristics

    • A cladogram

      • Is a depiction of patterns of shared characteristics among taxa

    • A clade within a cladogram

      • Is defined as a group of species that includes an ancestral species and all its descendants

    • Cladistics

      • Is the study of resemblances among clades


    Clades

    Clades

    • Valid Clade is monophyletic

      • Signifying that it consists of the ancestor species and all its descendants

    • ParaphyleticClade

      • Is a grouping that consists of an ancestral species and some, but not all, of the descendants


    Phylograms

    Phylograms

    • In a phylogram

      • The length of a branch in a cladogram reflects the number of genetic changes that have taken place in a particular DNA or RNA sequence in that lineage


    Phylogeny and systematics

    • Orthologous genes

      • Are genes found in a single copy in the genome

      • Can diverge only once speciation has taken place

    • Paralogous genes

      • Result from gene duplication, so they are found in more than one copy in the genome

      • Can diverge within the clade that carries them, often adding new functions


    Neutral theory

    Neutral Theory

    • states that

      • Much evolutionary change in genes and proteins has no effect on fitness and therefore is not influenced by Darwinian selection

      • And that the rate of molecular change in these genes and proteins should be regular like a clock


    Eubacterial

    Eubacterial

    • Most numerous organisms on earth

    • Earliest life forms (fossils date 3.5 billion years old)

    • Microscopic prokaryotes (no nucleus nor membrane-bound organelles)

    • Have only one circular chromosome

    • Have small rings of DNA called plasmids

    • Most are unicellular

    • Found in most habitats

    • Main decomposers of dead

    • organisms so recycle nutrients

    • Some cause disease


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