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Phylogeny and Systematics. By: Ashley Yamachika. Biologists use systematics They use systematics as an analytical approach to understanding the diversity and relationships of organisms, both present-day and extinct.

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phylogeny and systematics

Phylogeny and Systematics

By: Ashley Yamachika

slide2

Biologists use systematics

    • They use systematics as an analytical approach to understanding the diversity and relationships of organisms, both present-day and extinct
slide3

Systematists use morphological, biochemical, and molecular comparisons to infer evolutionary relationships

  • Phylogenies are based on common ancestries inferred from fossil morphological and molecular evidence.
the fossil record
The Fossil Record
  • Sedimentary Rocks…
    • Are the richest source of fossils
    • Are deposited into layers called strata
    • Based on the sequence in which fossils have accumulated in such strata
    • Fossils reveal characteristics that may have been lost over time
radiometric dating
Radiometric Dating
  • Measures the decay of radioactive isotopes in terms of half-life
    • Half-life is the amount of time it takes for ½ the amount of a radioactive isotope to decay
morphological and molecular homologies
Morphological and Molecular Homologies
  • Phylogenetic history can be inferred from certain morphological and molecular similarities among living organisms
  • Organisms that share very similar morphologies or similar DNA sequences
    • Are likely to be more closely related than organisms with vastly different structures or sequences
slide7

Convergent Evolution occurs when similar environmental pressures and natural selection produce similar (analogous) adaptations in organisms from different evolutionary lineages

  • Analogous Structures or molecular sequences that evolved independently are also called homoplasies
parallel evolution
Parallel Evolution
  • When both descendants are similar in a particular respect, evolution is defined as parallel if the ancestors considered were also similar, and convergent if they were not
divergent evolution
Divergent Evolution
  • The diversification of an ancestral group into two or more species in different habitats is called divergent evolution.
  • When it involves the formation of a large number of species to occupy different niches is called an adaptive radiation.
slide10

Phylogeneticsystematics connects classification with evolutionary history

  • Taxonomy
    • Is the ordered division of organisms into categories based on a set of characteristics used to assess similarities and differences.
binomial nomenclature
Binomial Nomenclature
    • Is the two-part format of the scientific name of an organism
    • Was developed by Carolus Linnaeus
  • The binomial name of an organism or scientific epithet
    • Is latinized
    • Is the genus and species
hierarchical classification

Panthera

pardus

Panthera

pardus

Panthera

pardus

Species

Species

Species

Panthera

Panthera

Panthera

Genus

Genus

Genus

Felidae

Felidae

Felidae

Family

Family

Family

Carnivora

Carnivora

Carnivora

Order

Order

Order

Mammalia

Mammalia

Mammalia

Class

Class

Class

Chordata

Chordata

Chordata

Phylum

Phylum

Phylum

Animalia

Animalia

Animalia

Kingdom

Kingdom

Kingdom

Eukarya

Eukarya

Eukarya

Domain

Domain

Domain

Hierarchical Classification
slide13

Systematists depict evolutionary relationships

    • In branching phylogenetic trees
slide14

Phylogeneticsystematics informs the construction of phylogenetic trees based on shared characteristics

  • A cladogram
    • Is a depiction of patterns of shared characteristics among taxa
  • A clade within a cladogram
    • Is defined as a group of species that includes an ancestral species and all its descendants
  • Cladistics
    • Is the study of resemblances among clades
clades
Clades
  • Valid Clade is monophyletic
    • Signifying that it consists of the ancestor species and all its descendants
  • ParaphyleticClade
    • Is a grouping that consists of an ancestral species and some, but not all, of the descendants
phylograms
Phylograms
  • In a phylogram
    • The length of a branch in a cladogram reflects the number of genetic changes that have taken place in a particular DNA or RNA sequence in that lineage
slide17

Orthologous genes

    • Are genes found in a single copy in the genome
    • Can diverge only once speciation has taken place
  • Paralogous genes
    • Result from gene duplication, so they are found in more than one copy in the genome
    • Can diverge within the clade that carries them, often adding new functions
neutral theory
Neutral Theory
  • states that
    • Much evolutionary change in genes and proteins has no effect on fitness and therefore is not influenced by Darwinian selection
    • And that the rate of molecular change in these genes and proteins should be regular like a clock
eubacterial
Eubacterial
  • Most numerous organisms on earth
  • Earliest life forms (fossils date 3.5 billion years old)
  • Microscopic prokaryotes (no nucleus nor membrane-bound organelles)
  • Have only one circular chromosome
  • Have small rings of DNA called plasmids
  • Most are unicellular
  • Found in most habitats
  • Main decomposers of dead
  • organisms so recycle nutrients
  • Some cause disease
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