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IPB. INTELLIGENCE PREPARATION of the BATTLEFIELD. FM 34-130. IPB Definition. IPB is the process which integrates enemy doctrine with weather and terrain to provide a basis for determining and evaluating enemy capabilities,

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IPB

INTELLIGENCE PREPARATION

of the

BATTLEFIELD

FM 34-130


Ipb definition
IPB Definition

IPB is the process which integrates enemy doctrine

with weather and terrain to provide a basis for

determining and evaluating enemy capabilities,

vulnerabilities, and probable COA.

IPB is a systematic and continuous process of analyzing

the threat and environment in a specific geographic

area.

It also serves as a planning

basis for the formulation of the

units concept of operations.


Ipb steps
IPB Steps

Define the Battlefield Environment

Describe the Battlefield Effect

Evaluate the Threat

Determine Threat Course of Action


Define the battlefield environment
Define the Battlefield Environment

Identify environmental factors that may influence available

COAs or the commander’s decisions.

There are 6 elements that must be considered . Focus on the

relationship between these elements and AI, AO, and Battle Space


Elements of battlefield environment
Elements of Battlefield Environment

1. Characteristics affecting friendly and enemy COAs/decisions

2. Limits of AO and Battle Space

Define the Battlefield

3. Limits of AI

4. Details required versus time available

5. Data base available and intelligence gaps

6. Collect intel and material to conduct IPB


Area of Operations (AO)

The AO is the geographical area where the

commander has been assigned the responsibility to

conduct operations.

Based on METT-T

Air AO is identical, except for height which is based on

acft ceiling height and effective altitude of AD weapons.


Battle Space

Battle Space is determined by the maximum

capabilities of a unit to acquire targets and

physically dominate the threat.

The command’s battle space includes all of the

AO as well as areas outside the AO.

The evaluation of this area may be as detailed as the

AO if required by the commander, or it receives

the same as AI.

Also depends on the commands ability to acquire

and engage targets using its own assets or those of

other commands on its behalf.


Area of Interest (AI)

The AI is the geographical

area monitored by the commander

and from which information (intel)

is required for planning and

conducting unit operations.

Generally larger than its

AO and battlespace.

Limits of AI include characteristics

of the battlefield environment

exerting an influence on available

COAs or command decisions


Describe the battlefield effects
Describe the Battlefield Effects

Define the Battlefield Environment

Describe the Battlefield Effect

During this step, one analyzes the battlefield environment

and describes its effects on threat and friendly COAs.

  • terrain

  • weather

  • light data


Military Aspects of Terrain

OCOKA

1. Observation and fields of fire

2. Cover and concealment

3. Obstacles

4. Key Terrain

5. Avenues of Approach


Observation and fields of fire

Observation involves the influence of terrain on reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition capabilities. Fields of fire involve the effects of terrain on weapons effectiveness.

Observation and Fields of Fire


Cover and concealment

Concealment is protection from air and ground observation. Cover is protection from the effects of fire. (IPB determines the concealment and cover offered to both friendly and enemy forces from both ground and air perspectives.

Cover and Concealment


Obstacles

Obstacles are natural and man made terrain features that stop, impede, or divert military movement. Terrain analysis attempts to identify where obstacles to ground and air movement are and what effects removing, overcoming, or bypassing these obstacles will have on overall operations.

Obstacles


Key terrain

Key terrain is any feature or area, of which the seizure, or control of, offers a marked tactical advantage. eg bridges, fording sites, choke points, road junctions. Mission accomplishment normally depends on the seizure or control of decisive terrain.

Key Terrain


Air and ground avenues of approach

These are routes by which a force may reach key terrain or an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

Air and Ground Avenues of Approach


Terrain analysis

Unrestricted Terrain an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

Restricted Terrain

Severely Restricted Terrain

Terrain Analysis


Unrestricted terrain
Unrestricted Terrain an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

Terrain free of any restrictions on movement.

Unmarked

There is no need to enhance mobility.


Restricted terrain
Restricted Terrain an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

  • Terrain hinders movement to some degree.

  • Little effort required to improve mobility.

  • Unit using the terrain is restricted doctrinally.

  • Depicted on the overlay by diagonal green lines.

OBJ.


Severely restricted terrain
Severely Restricted Terrain an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

  • Terrain severely hinders or slows movement of formations

  • unless some effort is made to improve mobility.

  • Mobility must be improved by using assets not organic to

  • the formation or by deviating from doctrinal tactics.

  • Depicted on the overlay by cross-hatched, diagonal

OBJ


Modified combined obstacles overlay mcoo
Modified Combined Obstacles Overlay (MCOO) an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

  • Product used to disseminate the results of the AO terrain

  • analysis. This is the final product, but must continually be

  • updated.

  • Aids the staff in completing their estimate.

  • cross-country mobility classifications

  • obstacle networks

  • defendable terrain

  • engagement areas

  • key terrain


Built-up Areas (BUA) an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

  • A BUA is larger than 1 square Km and is considered an obstacle.

  • They are outlined and cross-hatched in black on the overlay.

  • One should remember that cities are always growing and maps

  • may be outdated. Plan for the worst case.


Rivers and water obstacles an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

Swamps, lakes, ponds, and canals are outlined in blue

on the overlay using wide solid lines.


Key terrain1

K an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

Key Terrain

Key terrain is usually designated by:

Obvious color other than yellow or red (purple).


Obstacles1
Obstacles an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

  • Major cultural obstacles such as:

  • roads

  • rail-roads

  • embankments

  • power lines

  • overpasses

  • are depicted on the MCOO in black.


Avenues of approach
Avenues of Approach an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

  • Enemy avenues of approach are indicated in red.

  • Friendly axes of approach are indicated in blue.

  • Each avenue of approach indicates the size of the enemy

  • force it will support.

  • - they are based on doctrinal frontages and shown

  • from at least the FLOT to the final objective, and

  • prioritized to indicate the most likely avenue.

  • - As they show the general area through which a force can move,

  • the boundaries of avenues of approach and axes of advance may

  • cross Severely Restricted Terrain.


Mobility Corridors an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

  • Mobility corridors are shown in red (enemy) or blue

  • (friendly) on the MCOO.

  • They indicate areas where a force will be forced to

  • narrow its frontage due to terrain.

  • They are normally labeled with the size of the force

  • they will doctrinally support.

  • The boundaries do not cross Severely Restricted Terrain.


Objectives
Objectives an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

Friendly and enemy objectives are shown in either

blue or red on the MCOO.

They may be shown as area objectives or limits

of advance.

OBJ

SNAKE


Weather analysis
Weather Analysis an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

The commander integrates weather and terrain analysis

to determine their effect on tactical operations.

Weather and terrain are inseparable and can have a

significant impact (on both enemy and friendly operations).

They are integrated by the commander to determine their

effect on tactical operations and potential maneuver areas.


Military aspects of weather analysis

  • Visibility (SF insertion) an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

  • Wind speed and direction (NBC)

  • Precipitation (traffic)

  • Cloud cover (acft operations - CAS)

  • Temperature and humidity (heat injuries)Note: normally conducted at corps level and above by weather teams

Military Aspects of Weather Analysis


Evaluate the threat
Evaluate the Threat an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

Define the Battlefield Environment

Describe the Battlefield Effect

Evaluate the Threat

  • When evaluating the threat:

  • doctrinal templates are produced

  • Threat tactics and options are described

  • High Value Targets and threat capabilities

  • are identified


Doctrinal template
Doctrinal Template an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

The doctrinal template illustrates the threat’s

normal tactics and deployment when not constrained

by the effects of the battlefield environment.


Example of a doctrinal template
EXAMPLE OF A DOCTRINAL TEMPLATE an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

MRB(+)

(-)

MRB

MRB(+)

RAG

DAG

MRB

MRB(+)

20-30 KMs

DIV CP

RAG

MRB

MRB(+)

(-)

(-)

15-20 KMs


High value target hvt
High Value Target (HVT) an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

HVTs are assets that the threat commander requires for the

successful completion of the mission.

They are depicted on the templates as HVTs.


Categories of hvt
Categories of HVT an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

There are 13 categories of HVTs:

1. C3 11. Maintenance Units

2. FS 12. Lift

3. Maneuver 13. LOC

4. ADA

5. Engineer

6. RISTA

7. NBC

8. REC or EW

9. Bulk Fuels

10. Ammunition Points


Identify threat capabilities
Identify Threat Capabilities an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

  • They take the form of statements.

  • They are the broad COAs and supporting operations taken

  • by the threat to influence the ability of friendly units to

  • accomplish their mission.

  • Example: The enemy is capable of providing a strong

  • defense within 1 hour; the enemy can attack with success;

  • the enemy can be reinforced.


Determine threat coa
Determine Threat COA an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

Define the Battlefield Environment

Describe the Battlefield Effect

Evaluate the Threat

Determine Threat Course of Action

Identify and develop likely COAs

that will influence the friendly mission


Identify threat coas
Identify Threat COAs an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

  • COAs that threat doctrine indicates appropriate to the

  • current situation

  • COAs which could significantly influence your

  • command’s mission

  • COAs indicated by recent activities and events


Criteria for coas
Criteria for COAs an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

1. Suitability

2. Feasibility

3. Acceptability

4. Uniqueness

5. Consistency with doctrine


Prioritize each coa
Prioritize Each COA an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

1. Identify COA strengths and weaknesses, centers of

gravity, and decisive points.

2. Evaluate using the 5 criteria.

3. Compare them with each other.

4. Keep surprise in mind when evaluating COAs.

5. Analyze threat activity for indications that a COA has

already been adopted.


Coa three parts
COA: Three Parts an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

Situational Template

Description of List of HVTs

the COA


Situational templates
Situational Templates an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

The situational template

graphically illustrates how

the enemy might deviate

from doctrinal dispositions

to account for battlefield

environment effects.

Situational Template

Description of List of HVTs

the COA


Time phase lines
Time Phase Lines an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

Time Phase Lines (TPLs) are developed to evaluate time and

space factors using threat movement.


Describe the coa
Describe the COA an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

Situational Template

The COA description is

used to support staff

wargaming and to develop

the event template.

It can range from a narrative

description to a detailed

synchronization matrix.

Description ofList of HVTs

the COA


Named area of interest nai and indicator
Named Area of Interest (NAI) and indicator an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

A point, route, or area where you expect key events to

occur.

An indicator is an activity which reveals the enemy’s

selected COA.


Nai graphics
NAI GRAPHICS an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

NAI 6

AREA NAI

POINT NAI

ROUTE OF AIR APPROACH NAI

3

4


Event template
Event Template an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

Depicts where and when to collect the information which

will indicate which COA the threat has adopted.


Example of event template
EXAMPLE OF EVENT TEMPLATE an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

SIT TEMP 1

SIT TEMP 2

CONSOLIDATED

TEMPLATES

1

1&2

2

1&2

NAI 1

NAI 4

EVENT

TEMPLATE

NAI 2

NAI 3


Event matrix
Event Matrix an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

Supports the event template by providing details on the

type and time of activity in each NAI.


Example of event matrix
EXAMPLE OF EVENT MATRIX an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

NO EARLIER NO LATER

THAN THAN

NAI NO.

INDICATOR

NAI 1

H-7

H-2

Engineer preparation of artillery positions

NAI 1

H-2

Artillery occupies firing positions

H-30 MIN

NAI 1

H-1

H-15 MIN

Artillery commences preparatory fires

NAI 2

H-2

H-1.5

Combat recon patrol conducts route recon

NAI 2

H-1.5

H-30 MIN

Rifle company (+) in march formation


Decision support template dst
Decision Support Template (DST) an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

Relates the detail of the event template to decision

points that are significant to the commander.


Target area of interest tai
Target Area of Interest (TAI) an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

Points are areas along an avenue of approach or mobility

corridor where interdiction of an enemy force by fire

maneuver, or jamming will deny the enemy this particular

COA.

TRP 6969


Tai graphics
TAI Graphics an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

Area TAI

Point TAI

3

3


Decision point dp
Decision Point (DP) an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

DPs identify events, areas, and points on the battlefield

where tactical decisions are required, and when these

decisions must be made.

6


Ada considerations in ao
ADA Considerations in AO an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

Air defense operations focuses on three dimensional.

Encompasses smaller areas (No Fire Areas).


Ada considerations of ai
ADA Considerations of AI an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

The ADA AI includes airspace adjacent to the ADA

AO and extends into enemy airspace.

Often consists of scattered points rather than a

contiguous area.


Ada ai factors
ADA AI Factors an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

  • Location of TBM

  • Location of FARPs

  • Location of threat airfields

  • Location of aids to navigation

  • Range, altitude, and capabilities of threat aircraft

  • Range, capabilities, and flight profiles of TBM


Ada battlefield effect considerations
ADA Battlefield Effect Considerations an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

  • Probable target installation or areas

  • Likely Air Avenues of Approach (AAA)

  • Likely DZs or LZs

  • Likely standoff attack orbits

  • LOS from proposed ADA weapon locations


Air avenue of approach
Air Avenue of Approach an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

- Aerial sensors, attack aircraft and airmobile forces.

- Direct as possible to minimize risk and maximize payload.

- Terrain influences routes.


Air Threat COA to Consider an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

  • Locations of FARPs

  • Likely timing of air strikes /assault operations

  • Targets and objectives

  • Likely corridors and AAAs

  • Strike package composition

  • Flight profiles and spacing

  • Likely threat SEAD operations

  • Threat COAs that might require movement of friendly ADA assets


Ada threat
ADA Threat an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

  • Unmanned Aerodynamic Vehicle (UAV)

  • Cruise missile and TBM

  • Fixed Wing Aircraft

  • Rotary Wing Aircraft

  • Airborne and air assault forces


Other Threat Factors an objective. Air and ground mobility corridors are subsets of air and ground avenues of approach. Mobility corridors are areas within the avenues of approach which permit movement and maneuver.

  • Flight Operation Tactics

  • Ordnance types and availability

  • Ordnance delivery techniques (standoff ranges)

  • Release speeds and altitudes

  • Guidance systems

  • Technical capabilities of aircraft


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