Deuterocanonicals
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Deuterocanonicals. an exploration of the 7 Deuterocanonical books Holy Spirit Catholic Church January 2011. Almighty eternal God, I acknowledge you as my first beginning and my last end. My Creator and my Redeemer, my sanctification and my consummation. My God and my all.

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Deuterocanonicals

Deuterocanonicals

an exploration of the 7 Deuterocanonical books

Holy Spirit Catholic Church January 2011


Deuterocanonicals

Almighty eternal God, I acknowledge you as my first beginning and my last end.

My Creator and my Redeemer, my

sanctification and my consummation.

My God and my all.

I thank you for your lavish gifts to me,

to the whole human race and to all creation.

Lord, teach me not to hold on to life

too tightly. Teach me to take it as a gift.

To enjoy it, to cherish it while I have it, but to let go gracefully and thankfully when the time comes.

The gift is great, but the Giver is greater still.

You are the Giver and in you is the life

that never ends. Amen.


Deuterocanonicals

Deuterocanonical Books

meaning of deuterocanonical?

which books?

when written?

what language?


Deuterocanonicals

Deuterocanonical Books

meaning of deuterocanonical?

“second canon”


Deuterocanonicals

Deuterocanonical Books

which books?

  • Tobit, Judith, I & II Maccabees

  • Baruch, Wisdom, Sirach


Deuterocanonicals

Deuterocanonical Books

when written?

Between early 2nd & late 1st Century BC

(2oo) (100-90)


Deuterocanonicals

Deuterocanonical Books

what language?

most in Hebrew, then Greek

some originally in Greek


Deuterocanonicals book lengths

Baruch

6 chapters

Tobit

14 Chapters

II Maccabees

15 Chapters

I Maccabees

16 Chapters

Judith

16 Chapters

Sirach

51 Chapters

Wisdom

19 Chapters

Deuterocanonicals: Book Lengths


Deuterocanonicals genre categories

Deuterocanonicals: Genre Categories

  • Jewish Categories of TaNaK

  • Torah – the law

  • Neviim – the prophets

  • Kethuvim – the writings


Deuterocanonicals genre categories1

Deuterocanonicals: Genre Categories

  • Christian Categories of OT

  • Torah/Pentateuch

  • Historical Books

  • Wisdom Books

  • Prophetic Books


Deuterocanonicals genre categories2

Deuterocanonicals: Genre Categories

  • Christian Categories of OT

  • Torah/Pentateuch

  • Historical Books

  • Wisdom Books

  • Prophetic Books

I & II

Maccabees

Judith

Tobit

Wisdom

Sirach

Baruch


Deuterocanonicals dating the texts

Deuterocanonicals: Dating the Texts

150

100

200 BC

Judith

Sirach

1 Maccabees

Tobit

2 Maccabees

Baruch

Wisdom


Deuterocanonicals

Notions of Canon

& 7 Books as Canon

Jewish Scriptures

Christian Scriptures


The 7 books as canon

The 7 Books as Canon

  • How did Jews at time of Christ view their sacred scriptures?

    • Was there a Jewish canon? When?

  • How did Christians at the time of Christ, and shortly thereafter, view their sacred scriptures?

    • Was there a Christian OT canon?

  • Why do Catholics embrace the 7 books, while Protestants reject them?


Deuterocanonicals

How did Jews at time of Christ view their sacred scriptures?

Was there a Jewish canon? When?


How did jews at time of christ view their sacred scriptures was there a jewish canon

How did Jews at time of Christ view their sacred scriptures?Was there a Jewish canon?

  • Jews had a very fluid view of canon in the centuries before and after Jesus

  • Torah had a “pride of place” and seen as sacred scripture by 400 BC

  • Prophets garnered same status by 200 BC

  • Wisdom literature same status by 90 AD or later

    • II Maccabees 15:9 – “law and the prophets”

    • Luke 24:44 – “law of Moses, prophets and Psalms”

  • Septuagint was critical translation and important to understanding the Deuterocanonical books


Septuagint important for understanding the deuterocanonicals

Septuagint: Important for understanding the Deuterocanonicals

  • Septuagint (LXX)– critical in understanding history of canon & place of Deuterocanonical books

  • Greek translation of sacred scriptures for Jews in Alexandria and in the Diaspora

  • Translated between 3rd Century and 130 BC

  • “LXX” meaning denotes a sacred translation

  • Jews initially accepted the value of the Septuagint and later rejected it as Christians accepted as their text

  • SUMMARY: Jews view of canon was fluid until as late as 3rd Century AD. Rejected Septuagint due to Christian acceptance.


Deuterocanonicals

  • How did Christians at the time of Christ, and shortly thereafter, view their sacred scriptures?

    • Was there a Christian OT canon?


How did christians at the time of christ and shortly thereafter view their sacred scriptures

How did Christians at the time of Christ, and shortly thereafter, view their sacred scriptures?

  • Early Christians’ OT was the Septuagint, the Greek OT

  • LXX had all texts, including the 7 Deuterocanonical books

  • The NT writers use LXX most of the time in citing the OT (>80% of time)

  • SUMMARY: Jewish rejection of LXX was two-fold:

    • more conservative view of canon, eliminating books written in

    • Greek (or ones they thought were written in Greek) to solidify Jewish identity

    • the rabbis eliminated any books that Christians were using --(LXX) included the 7 books


Septuagint vs later jewish canon

Septuagint vs later Jewish Canon

Christian OT

46 Books

(Septuagint)

Used from time of Jesus

and throughout the NT


Septuagint vs later jewish canon1

Septuagint vs later Jewish Canon

Christian OT

46 Books

(Septuagint)

7 Books

Used from time of Jesus

and throughout the NT


Septuagint vs later jewish canon2

Septuagint vs later Jewish Canon

Christian OT

46 Books

(Septuagint)

Jewish TaNaK

39 Books

(Palestinian Canon)

7 Books

Used from time of Jesus

and throughout the NT

Not decided earlier than

90 AD or 3rd Century AD


Deuterocanonicals in the nt

Deuterocanonicals in the NT

  • New Testament use of the Deuterocanonicals

  • Over 70 references in NT to Deuterocanonicals

    • > 30 in Gospels/Acts

    • > 20 in Paul

    • > 20 in remaining NT (~13 in Revelation)

  • Gospels’ use:

    • “sheep without a shepherd” (Judith 11:19)

    • “seed on rocky ground, no root” (Sirach 40:15)

    • Jesus calling God his Father (Wisdom 2:16)

    • “takes away branches not bearing fruit” (Wisdom 4:5)

  • Paul’s use:

    • “sin and death entering the world” (Wisdom 2:4)

    • pagan sacrifices are to demons, not God (Baruch 4:7)

    • “suit of armor” language (Wisdom 5:17-20)


Deuterocanonicals

Why do Catholics embrace

the 7 books,

while Protestants reject them?

(did Catholics “add” them to the Bible?)


Deuterocanonicals

Why do Catholics embrace

the 7 books,

while Protestants reject them?

(did Catholics “add” them to the Bible?)

NO


Why do catholics embrace the 7 books while protestants reject them

Why do Catholics embrace the 7 books, while Protestants reject them?

  • Catholics accept the 7 books because they were part of the Septuagint, the first OT text of early Christianity (Church Fathers)

  • Protestants reject them on 2 grounds:

    • Jews didn’t accept the books

    • Certain doctrine taught are “Catholic” doctrines

    • • Prayers for the dead (Tobit 12:12; 2 Maccabees 12:39-45)• Purgatory (Wisdom 3:1-7)• Intercession of those in heaven (2 Maccabees 15:14)• Intercession of angels (Tobit 12:12-15)

  • Protestants accepted the 27 NT books authorized by the Catholic Church, but reject part of the OT (for faulty reasons)


Deuterocanonicals use in lectionary

Deuterocanonicals: Use in Lectionary


Book of tobit

Book of Tobit

  • Dating: early 2nd Century BC

  • Setting: 8th Century BC (fall of North 721 BC)

  • Text: Hebrew (original), Greek (surviving)

  • Length: 14 Chapters

  • Themes:

    • God answers prayers and rewards the faithful

    • Angels/Demons are active in affairs

    • Emphasis on prayer, fasting and almsgiving

    • Maintenance of Jewish identity in Exile is critical

    • Strong sapiential/wisdom themes


Book of judith

Book of Judith

  • Dating: mid 2nd – early 1st Century BC

  • Setting: 6th Century BC (assault on Judah)

  • Text: Hebrew (original), Greek (surviving)

  • Length: 16 Chapters

  • Themes:

    • Overt fiction is the literary medium

    • Tale of unlikely hero delivering her people

    • Strong belief in one God & fidelity to the God & law

    • God is in control of history, saving his people

    • God delivers in unusual ways


Book of i maccabees

Book of I Maccabees

  • Dating: mid-late 2nd Century BC (130s?)

  • Setting: ~175 to ~134 BC

  • Text: Hebrew (original), Greek (surviving)

  • Length: 16 Chapters

  • Themes:

    • Allegiance to the law of God

    • Preservation of Jewish cult and identity

    • Foundational story for Hanukkah

    • Connection to Jewish history

    • God saved Jews thru the Maccabees


Book of ii maccabees

Book of II Maccabees

  • Dating: late 2nd Century BC (shortly after 1 Maccabees)

  • Setting: overlaps with 1 Maccabees – only covering 20-25 yrs

  • Text: Greek (original)

  • Length: 15 Chapters

  • Themes:

    • Theological reflection on 1 Maccabees

    • Stresses martyrdom as a witness to faith

    • Introduces “new” themes/concepts

      • Creation out of nothing (ex nihilo) (7:28)

      • Resurrection/Afterlife (7:9,14)

      • Prayers/sacrifices for the dead (12:38-46)

      • Prayers from the dead (15:14)


Development of wisdom literature

Sirach

~200-180 BCE

religious, realistic

Wisdom

~100-90 BCE

religious/Greek, realistic

Development of Wisdom Literature

Proverbs 10-31

~700-400 BCE

secular, optimistic

Proverbs 1-9

~400 BCE

religious, optimistic

Job

~400 BCE

religious, pessimistic

Ecclesiastes

~300-250 BCE

secular, pessimistic


Book of baruch

Book of Baruch

  • Dating: early – middle 2nd Century BC (180-150)

  • Setting: post-Exile Babylon (6th Century BC)

  • Text: Hebrew (original), Greek (surviving)

  • Length: 6 Chapters

  • Themes:

    • Explores finding God outside of Promised Land

    • Theologically conservative: sin/guilt, contrition, deliverance – lacking sense of afterlife

    • Strong monotheistic emphasis

    • Prophet plays a strong role in reminding the exiles to hope

    • Strong connectedness to Jerusalem, even from afar


Book of sirach

Book of Sirach

  • Dating: 2nd Century BC (200-175) (translation 132)

  • Text: Hebrew (original), Greek (surviving)

  • Length: 51 Chapters

  • Themes:

    • A collection of moral instructions, proverbs & ethical essays

    • Offers a more conservative response to Hellenization –true wisdom found in Jewish history (heavy integration of history)

    • Heavy connection of wisdom with Jewish cult/priesthood

    • Jewish wisdom trumps wisdom of others

    • “this life” orientation (body/soul dichotomy, afterlife absent)


Book of wisdom

Book of Wisdom

  • Dating: early 1st Century BC (probably last written)

  • Text: likely Greek (original)

  • Length: 19 Chapters

  • Themes:

    • Written in Greek, saturated with Jewish themes

    • Critique of the traditional notion of retribution

    • Sacred history (haggadah) is important to identity

    • Developed notions of soul/spirit and afterlife

    • Personified Wisdom (picked up in NT, applied to Jesus)


In summary

In Summary

  • Forms/Literary Genres

  • Tobit & Judith – highly fictionalized narratives with overarching themes & messages

  • I Maccabees – historical narrative written closely to events

  • II Maccabees – polished theological interpretation of I Maccabees

  • Baruch – prose (opening/close) with poetry (middle)

  • Sirach & Wisdom – saturated in proverbs and ethical sayings (typical of wisdom literature)


In summary1

In Summary

  • SHARED Themes

  • God is One: Rigid Monotheism

  • Fidelity to the Law of God

  • Extolling the great story of Israel/Jewish past

  • Prayer, preceded by a contrite heart, is key

  • History is God’s stage


In summary2

In Summary

  • UNIQUE Themes

  • God saves thru the lowly (Judith)

  • Angels and demons are amongst us (Tobit)

  • Concrete notions of resurrection and afterlife emerged later in time (II Maccabees, Wisdom)

  • Preservation of cult/law/way of life should be achieved at all costs (Judith, I Maccabees)

  • Wisdom (personified in Wisdom), found in creation & law (Baruch) found in history (Sirach)


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