Variation and the monohybrid cross
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Variation and the Monohybrid Cross. Higher Biology. Significance of meiosis. Allele: different forms of the same gene ‘Meiosis provides the opportunity for new combinations of the existing alleles of genes to arise”. Independent assortment of chromosomes.

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Significance of meiosis

Allele: different forms of the same gene

‘Meiosis provides the opportunity for new combinations of the existing alleles of genes to arise”


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Independent assortment of chromosomes

  • Homologous pairs line up at equator during first meiotic division

  • Final position of any one pair is random relative to any other

  • Second meiotic division brings about independent assortment of chromosomes

  • This may lead to new phenotypes in the next generation


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Crossing over and separation of linked genes

  • Chromosome is aligned with its homologous partner during first meiotic division

  • Portions of chromatid exchanged at points called chiasmata


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Chiasmata

  • Chromatids become broken

  • Broken end of one joins with that of another

  • Alleles of linked genes can become separated

  • Formation of new allele combinations

  • Formation of new phenotypes


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Importance of Variation

  • Helps species adapt to a changing environment

  • ‘Survival of the fittest’ then occurs as a result of natural selection


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Monohybrid Cross

  • Cross between true-breeding parents with different alleles of the same gene

  • Genotype: the alleles the individual possesses of a particular gene

  • Phenotype: physical appearance of an individual


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Mendel’s First Law

  • The principle of segregation

  • alleles of a gene exist in pairs

  • when gametes form

    • members of each pair pass into different gametes

    • each gamete contains only one allele of each gene



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