variation and the monohybrid cross
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Variation and the Monohybrid Cross. Higher Biology. Significance of meiosis. Allele: different forms of the same gene ‘Meiosis provides the opportunity for new combinations of the existing alleles of genes to arise”. Independent assortment of chromosomes.

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Presentation Transcript
significance of meiosis
Significance of meiosis

Allele: different forms of the same gene

‘Meiosis provides the opportunity for new combinations of the existing alleles of genes to arise”

independent assortment of chromosomes
Independent assortment of chromosomes
  • Homologous pairs line up at equator during first meiotic division
  • Final position of any one pair is random relative to any other
  • Second meiotic division brings about independent assortment of chromosomes
  • This may lead to new phenotypes in the next generation
crossing over and separation of linked genes
Crossing over and separation of linked genes
  • Chromosome is aligned with its homologous partner during first meiotic division
  • Portions of chromatid exchanged at points called chiasmata
  • Chromatids become broken
  • Broken end of one joins with that of another
  • Alleles of linked genes can become separated
  • Formation of new allele combinations
  • Formation of new phenotypes
importance of variation
Importance of Variation
  • Helps species adapt to a changing environment
  • ‘Survival of the fittest’ then occurs as a result of natural selection
monohybrid cross
Monohybrid Cross
  • Cross between true-breeding parents with different alleles of the same gene
  • Genotype: the alleles the individual possesses of a particular gene
  • Phenotype: physical appearance of an individual
mendel s first law
Mendel’s First Law
  • The principle of segregation
  • alleles of a gene exist in pairs
  • when gametes form
    • members of each pair pass into different gametes
    • each gamete contains only one allele of each gene

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