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Faults of the Los Angeles Field Trip. Faults of the Los Angels Field trip. How were the San Gabriel Mountains uplifted? –Kim Gloersen How the Raymond, Hollywood, and Santa Monica faults are related? –Diego Furtado How are we “blind” to some of our faults? – Hannah Shamloo

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Faults of the Los Angeles Field Trip

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Faults of the los angeles field trip

Faults of the Los Angeles Field Trip


Faults of the los angels field trip

Faults of the Los Angels Field trip

  • How were the San Gabriel Mountains uplifted? –Kim Gloersen

  • How the Raymond, Hollywood, and Santa Monica faults are related? –Diego Furtado

  • How are we “blind” to some of our faults? – Hannah Shamloo

  • How the 1971 San Fernando and the 1994 Northridge earthquakes compare? –Miguel Frias-Rodriguez

  • How are fault features expressed in an urban environment? – Miguel Villasana

  • How is Los Angeles a city of faults? - Matt Rieman


How were the san gabriel mountains uplifted

How were the San Gabriel Mountains Uplifted?

Kim Gloersen

One mountain said to the other across the rift "Hey, it's not my fault!"


Plate movements

Plate Movements

  • 30 Ma. , subductive tectonic movements occurred between the Farallon, North American, and Pacific plates.

  • 20 Ma. the relative movements of the North American and the Pacific Plate changed from a head on head contact with the Farallon Plate to a lateral slipping against each other.


The big bend

The Big Bend

The “big bend” of the San Andreas fault causes compression that pushes up the Transverse Ranges.

Perspective of Big Bend compressional areas, with the addition of thrust faulting from the Sierra Madre.


Thrust faulting

Thrust Faulting

Compressional zones and thrust faulting.

North-south cross section of the San Gabriel Mountains


References

References

  • Atwater, Tanya. "Implications of Plate Tectonics for the Cenozoic Tectonic Evolution of Western North America." Geological Society of America Bulletin 81.12 (1970): 3513-536. Print.

  • "Geology of the San Gabriel Mountains, Transverse Ranges Province." Western Region Geology and Geophysics Science Center. Western Earth Surface Processes Team, 26 May 2006. Web. 15 June 2013.

  • Masters, Nathan. "Rise of the Sierra Madre: A Brief History of the San Gabriel Mountains | LA as Subject | SoCal Focus | KCET." KCET. KCET, 30 May 2012. Web. 15 June 2013.

  • Phillips, Donna E. "Geology of the San Gabriel Mountains, Transverse Ranges Province." Western Region Geology and Geophysics Science Center. USGS, 1 Jan. 1990. Web. 15 June 2013.


Relationship between the santa monica hollywood and raymond faults

Relationship between the santamonica, hollywood, and raymond faults.

BY DIEGO FURTADO


Faults of the los angeles field trip

COMPRESSION ZONE

  • The “BIG BEND”: Cause of

  • Compression between the Pacific

  • Plate and North American Plate

  • Mountains and faults are formed:

  • San Gabriel Mountains and

  • Santa Monica Mountains

  • Transverse Range Southern

  • Boundary Fault System: Extends

  • from east to west unlike other

  • California mountains


Faults of the los angeles field trip

TRANSVERSE RANGES FAULT SYSTEM

  • Base of San Gabriel and Santa Monica Mountains

  • West- trending system of faults that extends for 200 km

  • Oblique-slip, reverse-slip, and strike-slip


Faults of the los angeles field trip

RAYMOND, SANTA MONICA, AND HOLLYWOOD FAULTS

SANTA MONICA HOLLYWOOD RAYMOND

▼ ▼ ▼

TYPE OF FAULT : Left-reverse Left-reverse Left-lateral (minor reverse)

LAST KNOWN

SURFACE RUPTURE:

~900 A.D ~800 A.D. ~1000 A.D

PROBABLE

MAGNITUDES:

6.0 - 7.0 5.8 – 6.5 6.0 – 7.0

SLIP RATE (mm/yr):

0.27 – 0.39 0.33 – 0.75 0.10 - 0.22

LENGTH:

40 km 15 km 26 km

  • Santa Monica fault connects with Hollywood

  • fault at west Beverly Hills Lineament

  • Hollywood fault likely connects to Raymond

  • fault at Los Angeles River floodplain


Faults of the los angeles field trip

REFERENCES

  • http://geomaps.wr.usgs.gov/archive/scamp/html/scg_flt.html

  • http://qcode.us/codes/malibu-general-plan/view.php?topic=ii-5_0-5_2-5_2_2&frames=on

  • http://www.data.scec.org

  • Kristin D. Weaver, Paleoseismology and Geomorphology of the Raymond Fault,

  • Los Angeles County, California, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America

  • pp. 1409–1429, December 2000, P. 1410-1413.

  • James F. Dolan, Eldon M. Gath, Lisa B. Grant, Mark Legg, Scott Lindvall, Karl Mueller,

  • Michael Oskin, Daniel F. Ponti, Charles M. Rubin, Thomas K. Rockwell, John H, Shaw,

  • Jerome A.Treiman, Chris Walls, and Robert S. Yeats (compiler), P. 1-7.

  • James F. Dolan, David D. Bowman, and Charles G. Sammis, Data Repository for “Long

  • range and long term fault intersections in southern California”, Supporting data, references,

  • and notes for paleo-earthquakes in the Los Angeles region.


How are we blind to some of our faults

HOW ARE we “BLIND” TO some of our faults?

HANNAH SHAMLOO


Blind thrust faults

Blind thrust faults

  • Some faults do not break through the surface anywhere along their length

http://earthsci.org/processes/struct/equake1/EQCaseHistories.html


Puente hills thrust fault

Puente hills thrust fault

  • Recently discovered, 1999

  • Los Angeles Basin

  • Runs about 40 km

  • Three segments

  • Slip rate 5mm/year

  • 4 Major E.Q.’s last 11,000 years

http://www.scec.org/research/030404dolan.html


Faults of the los angeles field trip

DANGER

Compared to Northridge…

Northridge’s E.Q. directed strongest shaking towards N to sparsely populated mountains

PHT fault focuses its shaking toward downtown LA

LA Basin amplifies shaking

15x stronger energy release

Viz Credits: AmitChourasia


References1

REFERENCES

  • Marquis, John. "New Study Reveals The Behavior Of The Puente Hills Thrust Fault." New Study Reveals The Behavior Of The Puente Hills Thrust Fault. Southern California Earthquake Center, 4 Apr. 2003. Web. 18 June 2013.

  • Maugh II, Thomas H. (May 26, 2005). "Big Fault Under L.A. Could Be Devastating". Los Angeles Times 26 May 2005. Web. 18 Jan. 2013

  • Shaw, John H., Andreas Plesch, James F. Dolan, Thomas L. Pratt, and Patricia Fore. "Puente Hills Blind-Thrust System, Los Angeles, California." Thesis. N.d. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 16 Nov. 2001. Web. 18 Jan. 2013.


How the 1971 san fernando and the 1994 northridge earthquakes compare

How the 1971 San Fernando and the 1994 Northridge earthquakes compare

Miguel Frias-Rodriguez


Comparing two the earthquakes

COMPARING TWO the EARTHQUAKES

SAN FERNANDO 1971

NORTHRIDGE 1994


San fernando earthquake 1971

SAN FERNANDO EARTHQUAKE (1971)


Northridge earthquake 1994

NORTHRIDGE EARTHQUAKE (1994)


References2

references

Abridged from Seismicity of the United States, 1568-1989 (Revised), by Carl W. Stover and Jerry L. Coffman, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1527, United States Government Printing Office, Washington: 1993.r earthquake [updated]

Posted By: Scott Harrison Posted On: 12:25 a.m. | February 9, 2011, PHOTOGRAPH BY: BRUCE COX / LOS ANGELES TIMES.

U.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey URL: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1996/ofr-96-0263/execsum.htm

Bolt, Bruce A. (1971). The San Fernando Valley, California, Earthquake of February 9, 1971: Data on Seismic Hazards. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 61, No. 2, pp. 501-510, Figure 2.

R. S. Stein, G. C. P. King and J. Lin, Stress triggering of the 1994 M 6.7 Northridge , California, Earthquake by its Predecessors.


How fault features are expressed in an urban environment

How Fault Features are expressed in an urban Environment

Miguel Villasana


Faults of the los angeles field trip

http://www.artinaid.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Types-of-Faults.jpg


Faults of the los angeles field trip

http://la.streetsblog.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/source-westside-fault-lines.jpg


Faults of the los angeles field trip

REFERENCES

Newton, Damien, “Rest In Peace: Santa Monica Blvd. Subway”. Wednesday, Oct 19,2011. Web

Braid, Barbara, “What are the three types of Earthquakes Faults?”, Jan23, 2010. Web


Los angeles a city of faults

Los Angeles: A City of Faults

Los Angeles, A City of Faults

Matt Rieman


Faults of the los angeles field trip

Faults in Los Angeles


Faults of the los angeles field trip

Effect on Infrastructure

  • Freeways cross faults in many locations creating potential risk.

  • Collapse of freeway bridges during the Northridge earthquake caused widespread recognition of the hazard.


Faults of the los angeles field trip

- Faults run throughout the LA basin

Blind thrust faults such as the PuenteHills fault are particularly dangerous

-Skyscrapers are not designed for all possible motions and still have the potential to collapse during specific (and uncommon) motions


Another result of faulting

Another Result of Faulting

  • Oil can become trapped along faults

  • Yet seepage can also occur along faults

  • Tar pits- Caused by oil seeping up along a fault and degrading to asphalt


Faults of the los angeles field trip

Questions?


References3

References:

  • 405 Traffic. 2012. MNG Interactive. Photograph. Web. 20 Jun 2013. Uuuuuuu iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii<http://extras.mnginteractive.com/live/media/site200/2012/0615/2012061 5__405_traffic_01.JPG>.

  • Elle, Alli. Texture 79. Photograph. Deviant Art. Web. 20 Jun 2013. <http://couch-and- uuuuuuucanvas.deviantart.com/art/Texture-79-159359821>.

  • La Brea Tar Pits March 2010. Photograph. Web. 20 Jun 2013. uuuuuuu<http://www.thegypsiestownsend.com/2011/03/la-brea-tar-pits-march-iiiiiiiiiiiiiiii2010.html>.

  • Los Angeles Skyline. Photograph. Web. 20 Jun 2013. Uuuuuuu<http://www.thewallpapers.org/photo/17314/los_angeles_skyline-003.jpg>.

  • Northridge Earthquake. Photograph. Natural Disaster Atlas of the United States. Web. 20 uuuuuuuuJun2013.<http://naturaldisasteratlas.weebly.com/uploads/5/1/2/3/5123992/ 938 6727_orig.jpg>.

  • Sheibley, Mari. LA at Night. 2012. Photograph. Web. 20 Jun 2013. <http://www.marisheibley.com/post/19185422109/3-11-12-la-at-night>.

  • Weber, Betsy. La Brea Tar Pits. 2010. Photograph. Flickr. Web. 20 Jun 2013. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/betsyweber/5301040950/>.


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