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PSYC 200 Week #4. APA References (cont’d), Basic Research Methods, & The Main Parts of a Manuscript . Agenda. Roll call Collect and discuss graded assignments Finishing up references Some quick and dirty grammar Basic research methods Manuscript components (Part 1). Assignments Recap.

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Psyc 200 week 4

PSYC 200Week #4

APA References (cont’d),

Basic Research Methods, &

The Main Parts of a Manuscript


Agenda
Agenda

  • Roll call

  • Collect and discuss graded assignments

  • Finishing up references

  • Some quick and dirty grammar

  • Basic research methods

  • Manuscript components (Part 1)


Assignments recap
Assignments Recap

  • Reading assignment

    • Gram ch 3 – 8

    • APA ch 3, 7

  • Single article summary assignment

    • Was due last week or later, depending on your situation.

    • Stragglers?

  • Essay #1 Graded


Essay 1 common issues
Essay #1 – Common Issues

  • Missing title on body

    • You must put the title, centered, on the 1st page of the body.

  • Pronoun issues (will discuss later)

  • Non-descriptive title

  • Running head: NEEDS TO LOOK RIGHT

  • Extra space between paragraphs



Six or more authors
Six or More Authors

  • First use:

    • Jones et al. (2003) examined....

    • ...are more likely to see a difference (Jones et al., 2003)

  • Subsequent use:

    • Jones et al. found

    • ...greater understanding (Jones et al., 2006)

  • First use in a new paragraph:

    • Jones et al. (2003)


Different sources that could be confused when shortened
Different Sources That Could Be Confused When Shortened

  • Jones, Jackson, Martin, Howard, and Simms (1999)  Jones et al. (1999)

  • Jones, Madison, Howard, and Brown (1999)  Jones et al. (1999)

  • Jones, Jackson, et al. (1999)

  • Jones, Madison, et al. (1999)


More than one source
More Than One Source

  • ... interactions between youth and their parents (De Kemp, Scholte, Overbeck, & Engles, 2006; Mount & Steinberg, 1995; Walker-Barnes & Mason, 2001; Walker-Barnes & Mason, 2004).

  • The order of authors in parenthetical citations is alphabetical (identical to the reference page).


Secondary sources
Secondary Sources

  • Citing a document implies that you HAVE READ the original work (APA, 2010)

  • Did you actually read the original reference?

  • Smith (1978) originally found that...is more likely (as cited in James & Andrews, 2001)

  • Don’t include Smith’s article on your reference page.


Quotations
Quotations

  • When quoting from a source, “if the quotation comprises fewer than 40, incorporate it into text and enclose with double quotation marks” (APA, 2010, p. 170).

  • Quotes in the middle of a sentence have (p. #) directly after the quote


Quotations1
Quotations

  • Quotes with 40 or more words appear as an indented block.

  • The citation information follows the punctuation of the quote.


Other citation hints
Other Citation Hints

  • Articles don’t say anything—authors do.

    • Don’t say, The article found that…

    • Do say, Jones (2010) found

  • Don’t overload your reader with citations. You should only be presenting ideas that are relevant to your topic.

  • Practice…


Practice 1
Practice 1

  • Authors:

    • Seth D. Gosling

    • Orlando P. John

    • Kendra H. Craik

    • Robin Wright Robins

  • Year: 1998

  • Situation: 1st parenthetical citation in paper

    (Gosling, John, Craik, & Robins, 1998)


Practice 1a
Practice 1a

  • Authors:

    • Seth D. Gosling

    • Orlando P. John

    • Kendra H. Craik

    • Robin Wright Robins

  • Year: 1998

  • Situation: 1st parenthetical citation in new paragraph (already cited in paper)

    (Gosling, et al., 1998)


Practice 1b
Practice 1b

  • Authors:

    • Seth D. Gosling

    • Orlando P. John

    • Kendra H. Craik

    • Robin Wright Robins

  • Year: 1998

  • Situation: 2nd citation in paragraph, in-text

    Gosling, et al. found…


Practice 2
Practice 2

  • Authors:

    • Seth D. Gosling

    • Orlando P. John

  • Year: 1998

  • Situation: 2nd citation in paragraph, in-text

    Gosling and John found…


Formatting reference entries

Italicize, don’t italicize, period, abbreviate, parenthesize, period,pp.,hyphenate,Italicize, don’t italicize, period, abbreviate, parenthesize, period, pp., hyphenate, Italicize, don’t italicize, period, abbreviate, parenthesize, period, pp., hyphenate, Italicize, don’t italicize, period, abbreviate, parenthesize, period, pp., hyphenate,

Formatting reference entries


Reference page format rules
Reference Page Format Rules

  • Put the word References centered at top of new page

  • Start references next

  • Each new reference is a new, hanging indent paragraph.

  • Place references in alphabetical order

  • Each citation must have reference and vice versa

    This is an example of a hanging indent paragraph. In Word, go to Paragraph, Special Indent, and select Hanging.


Components of a reference
Components of a Reference

  • Author’s or authors’ name(s)

  • Year of publication

  • Article or Chapter Title

  • Journal or Book Title

  • Volume Number

  • Issue Number

  • Location of Publication

    • City, State or City, Country outside of US

    • DOI or web address or database name

  • Publisher Information


Journal article
Journal Article

Last name and initials.

In parentheses, end with pd.

Sentence caps, end in pd.

  • Author, A. A.

  • (YEAR).

  • Title of the journal article.

  • Title of The Journal, xx(#), pp-pp.

  • If retrieved electronically

    • doi:xxx.xxxxx.xx/xxx

      or

    • URL of journal home page

      Retrieved from http://www.journal.edu/ref/filename

      or

    • Retrieved from Name of database

Title caps, italicized

Italicized

In parentheses

Start pg., hyphen, end pg., period


Journal article exercise
Journal Article Exercise

  • Author: Tegan Best

  • Published in 2010

  • Title of article: Effects of Name Referents on Childhood Experiences.

  • Title of journal: Journal of Alderian Psychopathology, volume 6, issue 7, pages 22 to 33

  • Identifier: 10.1177/0093854806286208

Best, T. (2010). Effects of name referents on childhood experiences. Journal of Adlerian Psychopathology, 6(7), 22-33. doi:10.11….


An entire book
An Entire Book

  • Author, A. A.

  • (YEAR).

  • Title of the book.

  • City, State or Country (outside of US): Publisher.


A chapter in a book
A Chapter in a Book

  • Author, A. A.

  • (YEAR).

  • Title of the chapter.

  • In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.),

  • Title of the book (pp. xx-xx).

  • City, State: Publisher.


Technical or research report
Technical or Research Report

  • Author, A. A.

  • (YEAR).

  • Title of report (Report No. XXXX).

  • City, State: Publisher

    or

  • Retrieved from Agency Site: http://agency.gov/location/filename


Apa language style guidelines

Headings

Language Guide

apa language style guidelines



Using headings
Using Headings

  • Headings are used to create sections

  • Improves sense of organization

  • Improves accessibility of information

  • Simple transition between major parts of paper

  • Heading styles are codified 


Apa headings apa p 62 63
APA Headings (APA p. 62-63)

Centered Title Caps (b)

Left Title Caps (b)

Indented sentence caps ending w/ pd. (b)

Indented sentence caps ending w/ pd. (b,i)

Indented, sentence caps ending w/ pd. (i)


Quick apa language guide
Quick APA Language Guide

  • Word choice and usage – the right word in the right place

  • Removing bias

  • Grammar / Punctuation


Common phrases
Common phrases

  • Avoid these!!

    • Feel, believe, think, prove, stated, wrote, said

  • Replace with:

    • Hypothesize, conjecture, reason, support, found, suggested

Quick APA Language Guide – Word Choice / Usage


Avoid wordiness
Avoid Wordiness

  • Clear & Concise

  • Write like a poet

    • Make every word count

    • Avoid unnecessary transitions

    • Say what you want to using one word instead of two

      • Say it with one word rather than two

      • Say it with one word, not two

Quick APA Language Guide – Word Choice / Usage


Informalities and slang
Informalities and Slang

  • No contractions—ever!

  • No colloquialisms

    • Sky-high, bright idea, and the like

    • others?

Quick APA Language Guide – Word Choice / Usage


Using conjunctions correctly
Using Conjunctions Correctly

  • Since vs. Because

    • Andrew has been excited about going to the zoo since last Thursday.

    • The dog salivated because Pavlov rang the bell.

  • While vs. Although

    • Although I enjoy watching baseball on television, I would rather be at the stadium.

    • While Jack cleaned the garage, Mary dusted the living room.

  • Or vs. Nor

    • The girl was allowed to have either a piece of candy or a sticker.

    • Neither the doctor nor the nurse could find the patient’s chart.

Quick APA Language Guide – Word Choice / Usage


Referring to people
Referring to People

  • Do not use “You” to refer to the reader.

  • Do not use “We” to refer to general groups or society.

  • Use “One”

    • If one chooses to engage in criminal activity, then one must be ready to accept the consequences.

    • One should not equate correlation with causation.

Quick APA Language Guide – Word Choice / Usage


Me myself and i
Me, myself, and I

  • Can you use first person?

    • YES!!

  • Use the appropriate first person pronoun when referring to yourself or the author(s) of your paper.

  • Consider using passive voice

    • I gave the survey to 70 participants

    • Seventy participants received the survey

Quick APA Language Guide – Word Choice / Usage


They all sound the same
They All Sound the Same...

  • They’re, There, and Their

    • They’re going to the store this afternoon. (contraction = they are)

    • I just returned from Dublin, have you ever been there? (place, direction)

    • Their house is white with blue shutters. (possession)

  • To, Too, and Two

    • Kent is moving to Massachusetts.

    • I want to go too.

    • He is taking his two dogs with him.

Quick APA Language Guide – Word Choice / Usage


They all sound the same1
They all sound the same...

  • It’s and Its

    • It’s Jake’s birthday today. (It is)

    • Its hair was matted and mangled. (possession)

  • Whether and Weather

    • It does not matter whether or not Mandy stays for dinner.

    • The weather is supposed to be cold and damp.

  • Then and Than

    • Men are more likely than women to watch UFC.

    • The students were instructed to clear their desks then begin the examination.

Quick APA Language Guide – Word Choice / Usage


Often forgotten
Often Forgotten.....

  • Who vs. Whom

    • Who is the person with the white lab coat?

    • With whom did you leave the key?

  • Who vs. That

    • Individuals who study, often find exams to be easy.

    • Companies that give employees better benefits have higher productivity.

    • The vase that broke is in the cardboard box.

    • Times when..., Places where...

  • Affect vs. Effect

    • Psychology students often learn about the Hawthorne effect.

    • Amy wants study how energy-drinks affect performance and cognitive ability.

Quick APA Language Guide – Word Choice / Usage


Anthropomorphizing
Anthropomorphizing

  • Do not give human traits or abilities to inanimate or non-human objects/creatures.

  • Do not write

    • The article shows...

      • Instead try...Deci and Ryan indicate

    • The research explains...

      • Instead...Pavlov explains

Quick APA Language Guide – Word Choice / Usage


Removing bias
Removing Bias

  • One must be conscientious of how individuals and groups are identified.

    • Do not over generalize

    • Gender bias

    • Racial/Ethnicity bias

    • Mental health or disability status

    • Age

Quick APA Language Guide - Bias


Sexist language
Sexist Language

  • When referring to an object that could be either male or female (e.g., a participant, a client, etc.) you MUST not exclude a gender.

  • For example, “When a therapist begins a session, she introduces herself first.”

  • Try,

    • “…the therapist introduces his or herself…”

    • “…self-introductions come first…”

    • Or: Make it plural  “When therapists begin sessions, they introduce themselves first.”

Quick APA Language Guide - Bias


Irregular plurals

Data

Datum

Irregular Plurals

Singular

Plural

  • Phenomena

  • Hypothesis

  • Hypotheses

  • Phenomenon

Quick APA Language Guide - Grammar


Irregular plurals1

Singular Form

Child

Mouse

Foot

Offspring

Formula

Datum

Stimulus

Index

Hypothesis

Criterion

Plural Form

Children

Mice

Feet

Offspring

Formulae

Data

Stimuli

Indices

Hypotheses

Criteria

Irregular Plurals

Quick APA Language Guide - Grammar


Abbreviations
Abbreviations

  • That is…

    • Study for your class; that is, if you don’t want to fail.

    • Study for your class (i.e., if you don’t want to fail)

  • And so on…

    • Notes, books, pencils, etc.

  • For example…

    • For example, students in PSYC200.

    • …(e.g., students in PSYC200).

  • And other people (things) [used when have many authors]

    • …was found (Johns, et al., 2002).

Quick APA Language Guide - Grammar


Dirty grammar
Dirty Grammar

  • They’re always there to hurt their grade

    • their, there, and they’re

  • Plural possessives

    • Individual, individuals, individual’s, and individuals’

  • Pronoun shifting

    • Someone cannot be a they

Quick APA Language Guide - Grammar


Parallel construction
Parallel Construction

  • Each statement must be able to stand alone and still be grammatically correct.

  • The student is required to read 30 pages of text, write a report, and memorize a list of vocabulary words.

    • to read

    • to write

    • to memorize

Quick APA Language Guide - Grammar


Dirty Grammar

  • Make ‘em parallel

    • My experience with psychology is mostly from attending classes, working with children, and to read books.

    • If you can’t pull it apart, then it ain’t parallel

      • ..from attending classes

      • ..from working with children

      • ..from read books

Quick APA Language Guide - Grammar


Dirty Grammar – Comma use

  • I expect to gain much experience in this class, and hope to find out a direction for my career.

    • I expect to gain much experience in this class

    • hope to find out a direction for my career

  • I expect to gain much experience in this class, and I hope to find out a direction for my career.

    • I expect to gain much experience in this class

    • I hope to find out a direction for my career

  • Mostly, whenever possible, use, or otherwise utilize, a comma on introductory phrases

    • At that time, I wanted to be a counselor

Quick APA Language Guide - Grammar


Resources for help
Resources for help

Quick APA Language Guide




Research methods

Naturalistic Observation

Quasi-Experimental

Survey

Relational Research

Field Study

Experimental

Research Methods

  • There are 6 basic categories of scientific method that virtually all research falls into

Research

Non-Experimental

Experimental


Research methods naturalistic observation
Research Methods –Naturalistic Observation

  • Addresses most basic scientific question: “What is out there?”

  • Requires operational definition of events to be observed

  • Observer must be unobtrusive, and design must be nonreactive


Research methods field based research
Research Methods –Field-Based Research

  • Like naturalistic observation, conducted in real-world settings

  • Goal is to establish natural relations among events

  • Observer must be unobtrusive, but methods are intentionally reactive


Research Methods –Survey Research

  • Appropriate to the study of private behaviors

  • Two primary styles:

    • Interviews (structured/unstructured)

    • Questionnaires (structured/unstructured)


Research Methods –Relational (Correlational) Research

  • Goal to verify systematic (usually linear) relations among events

  • Strengths/directions of relations

    • generally expressed in form of correlation coefficient (rxy)


Research methods true experiment
Research Methods –True Experiment

  • Goal: to establish a cause-effect relationship among events

    • Does low-fat diet cause decrease in cancer risk?

    • Does exposure to violent video games cause increase in violent behaviors?

    • Does spaced study cause increase in memory accuracy and retention?

    • Do genetic variations cause sexual preference?


Research Methods –True Experiment

  • Requires:

    • random assignment of participants to at least two equivalent conditions

    • manipulation of one factor (independent variable, or IV) in one condition (experimental), leaving it unchanged in other condition (control)

    • measurement of one other factor in both conditions (factor called dependent variable, or DV; measurement instrument called dependent measure, or DM)


Research Methods –True Experiment

  • Concludes:

    • if groups are NOT equivalent with respect to DV, and

    • if the difference between the groups is so big it probably did not happen by chance, then

    • manipulation of the IV caused the difference in the DV


Research Methods –Quasi-Experiment

  • Goal also to establish cause-effect relations among events

  • Required when random assignment is not possible, because

    • must use pre-existing groups, or

    • IV impossible to manipulate directly, or

    • IV unethical/illegal to manipulate directly


Research methods review
Research Methods Review

  • Name 6 categories of scientific research


The parts of an apa manuscript

Title Page

Abstract

Body

Literature review

Method

Results

Discussion

References

Tables

Figures

Appendices

The parts of an APA manuscript


Review
Review

  • General guidelines

  • Title page

  • Abstract


Body

  • Purpose:

    • The “meat” of your article. You want to share your experiences, knowledge, opinions with the world.

  • Formatting:

    • Title centered at top of first page

    • Double space, indent, and begin your text

  • Content:

    • Discuss all necessary aspects of your topic

    • {see next slide}


Body – Experimental / Research Paper

  • Introduction

    • Purpose:

      • Identify previous work in the field relating to your topic / study

    • Formatting:

      • NO heading (e.g., “Introduction”) to start

      • May use headings to separate sections


Body – Experimental / Research Paper

  • Introduction (cont’d)

    • Content

      • Lit review

        • Cite previous scientific work related to your article

        • Logical (usually not chronological) order

      • Purpose of study

        • What are you trying to accomplish / investigate?


Body – Experimental / Research Paper

  • Introduction (cont’d)

    • Content (cont’d)

      • Theoretical issues

        • How does your article impact the field?

        • How has previous work in the field influenced your article?

      • Definitions of variables

        • What do you mean by, “depression” or “efficient time use”?

      • Statement of hypotheses

        • What do you expect to find, given the previous work in the field and your own personal twist?


Body – Literature Review Paper

  • Introduction

    • Content

      • Theoretical issues

        • What previous work has been done in this topic?

        • Is there any controversy / disagreement about this topic?

        • What are the opposing view points?

      • Definitions of variables

        • What do you mean by, “depression” or “efficient time use”?


Body – Experimental / Research Paper

  • Other Components of the Body

    • Method Section

    • Results Section

    • Discussion Section

  • {to be continued…}


Review and next steps
Review and Next Steps

  • Review

  • Next week assignments

    • Gram reading (ch 9) and assigments #1-3 in the book

    • APA ch 4

    • APA Style Practice Test #1

  • Editorial style (the minutiae)


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