Option D5: Stimulants. Sohaib Hassan. Stimulants. What are stimulants? Stimulants are drugs that increase a persons state of Mental Alertness . All stimulants tend to increase concentration . But other effects vary according to the particular stimulant.
amphetamines and Epinephrine(Adrenaline) are both chemically similar in that both are derived from the Phenylethylamine structure
The difference between these is that Amphetamines are synthetic chemicals that mimic the effects of naturally occurring Adrenaline(Epinephrine). Amphetamines are a sympathomimetic drug which mimic the effect of stimulation on the Sympathetic nervous system
Both amphetamines and Epinephrine(Adrenaline) are derived from the Phenylethylamine structure shown on the left
Adrenaline contains a secondary amine
Amphetamines contains a primary amine
As we can see in the images above these are the structural differences between both the stimulants shown above.
CLASSIFICATION OF AMINES
Tertiary( three- R groups attached the N atom
Secondary( two R groups attached to the N atom)
Primary (one R group attached N atom)
The stimulatory effects of Nicotine may also lead to the excess production of stomach acid leading to an increased risk of peptic ulcers.
Some other well known risks of smoking include chronic lung diseases, adverse side effects on pregnancy, and cancers of the mouth, lung, and throat.
Both caffeine and Nicotine contain a tertiary amine group.