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Energy Flow in Ecosystems. Chapter 5. Why do organisms need energy?. Basic body processes (breathing, digestion, blood flow) Migration/moving Catching food “energy flow determines how much life an ecosystem can support”. Sunlight. The main source of energy for all life on Earth

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Energy Flow in Ecosystems

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Energy flow in ecosystems

Energy Flow in Ecosystems

Chapter 5


Why do organisms need energy

Why do organisms need energy?

  • Basic body processes (breathing, digestion, blood flow)

  • Migration/moving

  • Catching food

  • “energy flow determines how much life an ecosystem can support”


Sunlight

Sunlight

  • The main source of energy for all life on Earth

  • Only 1% of the sun’s radiation is used by organisms


Energy catchers

Energy Catchers

  • Autotrophs = plants, algae, and bacteria that capture energy for food from sunlight or chemicals

  • also called Producers

  • “essential to the flow of energy in an ecosystem”


Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis

  • The process by which autotrophs capture the energy of the sun

  • Convert carbon dioxideand water into oxygen and carbohydrates

  • Remove CO2 from the atmosphere and add Oxygen for us to breathe


Chemosynthesis

Chemosynthesis

  • Process by which organisms convert chemicals to energy w/o light

  • Many types of bacteria do it

  • Able to live in harsh environments (tar pits, deep sea vents, hot springs, salt marshes)


Consumers

Consumers

  • Consumers = organisms that cannot harness energy directly from the environment and must require it from eating other organisms

  • also called Heterotrophs


Types of consumers

Types of Consumers

  • Herbivores = eat only plants (cows, deer)

  • Carnivores = only eat animals (snakes, owls)


Types of consumers1

Types of Consumers

  • Omnivores = eat both plants and animals (humans, bear, crows)

  • Detrivores (decomposer) = feed on dead and decaying plants and animals – detritus (snails, crabs, bacteria)


How do organisms use the energy they get from food

How do organisms use the energy they get from food?

  • Cellular Respiration = the cellular process that converts food into energy

  • sugar and oxygen are converted into carbon dioxide and water and a lot of energy is released


Feeding relationships

Feeding Relationships

  • Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction

  • Sun/Inorganic Molecule to Autotroph (producer) to Heterotroph (consumer)

  • Modeled as a food chain or food web


Food chain

Food Chain

  • A series of steps where energy is transferred from organisms being eaten or by eating

  • Energy flows in one direction

  • Some start or end with decomposers


Food webs

Food Webs

  • Energy relationships are more complex than a simple food chain

  • A producer can be eaten by more than one consumer (grass is eaten by deer, rabbits, and mice in a forest)

  • Depicts all the feeding relationships in a specific ecosystem


Trophic levels

Trophic Levels

  • The name for each step in the food chain

  • Producer = 1st level

  • Consumers = 2nd, 3rd, 4th, etc…

  • Each consumer depends on the level below it for energy


Energy pyramid

Energy Pyramid

  • Shows how much energy is stored and how much is used at each trophic level

  • 90% used = reproduction, move, breathe, etc…

  • 10% stored = available for next consumer

  • Less energy at the top


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