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Ecoinformatics Indicators workgroup. Berkeley 23-25 October, 2006 David Stanners. Overview. EEA indicators update IT systems and indicators – SEIS Aggregate & composite indicators Defining sustainability – SCP Effectiveness Evaluation. 1. EEA Indicators update.

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Ecoinformatics indicators workgroup

EcoinformaticsIndicators workgroup

Berkeley

23-25 October, 2006

David Stanners


Overview
Overview

  • EEA indicators update

  • IT systems and indicators – SEIS

  • Aggregate & composite indicators

  • Defining sustainability – SCP

  • Effectiveness Evaluation


1 eea indicators update
1. EEA Indicators update

  • From SOER 2005 to SOER 2010

  • Belgrade report – June 2007 (see separate presentation)

  • GEO-4 UNEP – Sept 2007

  • WHO CEHAPE review – May 2007

  • Thematic indicators – biodiversity, marine...

  • Sectoral indicators – construction, food...

  • Regional – Mediterranean – EEA mandate

  • Sustainability indicators – SDS review – new EEA mandate – reform of structural indicators

  • Environment & health – BoD methodological

  • ”Late Lessons fron Early Warnings” Vol 2


Information assessment tools
Information & assessment tools

  • Statistics & monitoring data / geo-referencing as the basis

  • “Core set” of indicators to monitor key trends and warning signals

  • “Scorecard” to compare and measure progress

  • Environmental accounting to understand stocks & flows

  • Effectiveness evaluation to improve performance

  • Country “profiling” to understand local conditions

  • Good practices to share successful experiences (local, regional, national)

  • Scenarios to imagine plausible futures and stimulate new thinking


Problem statement indicators as part of an monitoring information system
Problem statement – indicators as part of an monitoring/information system

  • Growth and divergence of indicator & reporting activities (see e.g. List of 2007 reports!)

  • Divergence of indicator and data activities

  • Divergence of assessment and indicator and data activities

  • Lack of temporal, spatial, discipline continuity

  • Lack of overall concept linking, data, indicators and assessment

  • Need for linking people (experts, users, stakeholders) involved – people as part of the information system

     Linking the different parts – Towards more Integrated & Effective Activities


The data line
The data line monitoring/information system

Data in

Data out


The information cross
The information cross monitoring/information system

Quantitative

Data in

Information out

Qualitative


The knowledge innovation sphere
The Knowledge-Innovation sphere monitoring/information system

Innovation cycle

Effective

products

& services


The data line1
The data line monitoring/information system

Data in

Data out


The data line2
The data line monitoring/information system

Country reporting

Data/Statistical compendia

Reporting the best available

Compiling available data

Data in

Data management

Data out

Data reports


The data line3
The data line monitoring/information system

Country reporting

Data/Statistical compendia

Reporting the best available

Compiling available data

Data in

Data management

Data out

Data reports


The information cross1
The information cross monitoring/information system

Quantitative

Data in

Information out

Qualitative


The information cross2
The information cross monitoring/information system

Quantitative

Thematic & sectoral indicator sets

Sectoral data sets

Core Set of Indictaors

Thematic data sets

SOERs etc

Data in

Data management

Information out

(Integrated) Assessments

Qualitative


The information cross3
The information cross monitoring/information system

Quantitative

Thematic & sectoral indicator sets

Sectoral data sets

Core Set of Indictaors

Thematic data sets

SOERs etc

Data in

Data management

Information out

(Integrated) Assessments

Qualitative


The information cross systemisation
The information cross - monitoring/information systemsystemisation

Quantitative

CS-Indicators & IA(Modelling)

SEIS

Data in

Data management

Information out

Integrated Assessments

Qualitative


The information cross the missing half
The information cross – monitoring/information systemthe missing half

Quantitative

SEIS

CS-Indicators & IA(M)

Data in

Data management

Information out

Integrated Assessments

??

??

Qualitative


The information circle
The information circle monitoring/information system

Quantitative

SEIS

CS-Indicators & IA(M)

Data in

Data management

Information out

Integrated Assessments

Effectiveness evaluation

Outlooks

Participatory processes

Scenarios

Clearing houses, BATs…

Practices/experiences

”Late Lessons”

Qualitative


The information circle1
The information circle monitoring/information system

Quantitative

SEIS

CS-Indicators & IA(M)

Data in

Data management

Information out

Integrated Assessments

Effectiveness evaluation

Outlooks

Participatory processes

Scenarios

Clearing houses, BATs ...

Practices/experiences

”Late Lessons”

Qualitative


The information circle systemisation
The information circle – monitoring/information systemsystemisation?

Quantitative

SEIS

CS-Indicators & IA(M)

Data in

Data management

Information out

Integrated Assessments

An SEIS for qualitative information? (Gathering & organising practice, experiences, lay & local knowledge)

Knowledge based assessments

Qualitative


The information circle systemisation1
The information circle - systemisation monitoring/information system

Quantitative

SEIS

CS-Indicators & IA(M)

Data in

Data management

Knowledge for Action

Gathering & organising practice, experiences, lay & local knowledge

Knowledge based assessments

Qualitative


The knowledge innovation sphere1
The Knowledge-Innovation sphere monitoring/information system

Innovation cycle


Towards more integrated effective activities linking the different actors knowledge for action

Innovation cycle monitoring/information system

Effective

products

& services

EEA/Eionet role

Towards more integrated & effective activities linking the different actors  knowledge for action

Capacity* building

Business, Children / Education.....

*the ability to improve the environment and influence others

Target audiences

Regulatory bodies....


Reinforcing development of indicators linking to
Reinforcing development of indicators linking to.... monitoring/information system

  • Sectors

  • Prospective analysis, scenarios & outlooks

  • Model interfacing

  • Uncertainty/sensitivity analysis

  • Participatory methods

  • Policy effectiveness assessment

  • Spatial analysis .......


Reversing the thinking
Reversing the thinking monitoring/information system

Reporting

Assessment

Information

Data

Monitoring

Monitoring

Data

Information

Assessment

Reporting


Air pollution reporting
Air pollution: Reporting monitoring/information system

Is progress in the implementation

of agreed policies on ammonia

enough to reach targets?


Air pollution assessment
Air pollution: Assessment monitoring/information system

"Changes in agricultural practice and lower

animal numbers are expected to reduce

ammonia emissions to X mln tonnes

above the NECD target in 2010.

In Denmark, the Netherlands, Germany and

Belgium it will be necessary either to reduce

the amount of cattle with an additional Y%

or to support the building of low-emission stables

and to ban the conventional distribution of

liquid manure on the fields".


Air pollution information

Ammonia emissions, EU15 monitoring/information system

emissions

N-critical load

exceedance

CLRTAP target

NECD target

Air pollution: Information


Air pollution data

data monitoring/information system

spreadsheets

bases

models

  • Basic statistics

  • Emission coefficients and emissions

  • Scenarios for societal developments

  • Measures and their effects

Air pollution: Data


How to codify this
How to codify this? monitoring/information system

  • Core set of indicators

  • Part of indicator definitions (metadata)

  • Links to data sources, models,the environmental issue and policy questions

  • By codifying the meaning of the indicator (how it relates to the phenomena it aims to ”indicate” and the policy questions) we can automate indicator production and shift effort to assessment and interpretation.


Towards more effective products and services knowledge for action a learning innovation cycle

Innovation cycle monitoring/information system

Effective

products

& services

Networking

Towards more effective products and services (knowledge for action) – a learning innovation cycle

Capacity* building

Business, Children / Education.....

*the ability to improve the environment and influence others

Target audiences

Regulatory bodies....


2 it systems and indicators seis
2. IT systems and indicators - SEIS monitoring/information system

  • IT systems to support presentation, access and analysis to indicator information and supporting data and metadata

  • Role of the European Shared Environment Information System (SEIS)

  • Data Centres – administrative arrangement


Data centres
Data centres monitoring/information system

  • EEA

    • Air

    • Climate change

    • Water

    • Biodiversity

    • Land use

  • Eurostat

    • Natural resources

    • Waste

    • Integrated product policy

  • JRC

    • Forestry

    • Soil


CORINE monitoring/information system

1995 - 2005+:

”reporting” information system

EEA

Node

Node

2005 – 2013+:

”shared” environment information system

EEA

Node

Evolution of Europe’s Environmental Information System

1985 - 1995 - 2005+:

”stand alone” information system


Common components of a SEEIS node monitoring/information system


Components of EEA SEEIS node monitoring/information system


Integrating data sets 2005 to 2008
Integrating data sets 2005 monitoring/information systemto 2008…..

http://dataservice.eea.eu.int/sdi


Applied across the collaborating organisations monitoring/information system a key component of SEEIS


3 aggregate composite indicators
3. Aggregate & composite indicators monitoring/information system

  • EEA Scientific Committee opinion

  • Commission now reviewing seriously Ecological Footprint

  • Towards a basket of Aggregate indicators (common metric)

  • Skepticism on use of Composite indicators (no common metric)

  • See Excel dbase of composites


4 defining sustainability

4. Defining sustainability monitoring/information system

  • EU SDS review and revision of structural indicators

  • Sustainable consumption & production (SCP)


Sds review
SDS review monitoring/information system

  • SD now overarching Lisbon agenda

  • New request to EEA – measuring resource efficiency

  • Revision of structural indicators (ESTAT lead)

  • SCP – a more practical understanding of SDS?


Sustainable consumption production scp

Sustainable consumption & production (SCP) monitoring/information system


Content
Content monitoring/information system

  • How we see sustainable consumption and production

  • A storyline of unsustainable consumption and production in Europe

  • Results from our NAMEA project


1 defining scp
1. Defining SCP monitoring/information system

‘SCP is a holistic approach to minimising negative environmental impacts from the production-consumption systems in society.

SCP aims to maximize the efficiency and effectiveness of products, services, and investments so that the needs of society are met without jeopardizing the ability of future generations to meet their needs.’

(Norwegian Ministry of the Environment, Oslo Symposium, 1994)


1 cont material flows in the economy
1 (cont.) Material flows in the economy monitoring/information system


1 cont what influences consumption and production
1 (cont.) What influences consumption and production? monitoring/information system

Source: Household consumption and the environment, EEA, 2005


1 cont economic actors
1 (cont.) Economic actors monitoring/information system


1 cont what are the drivers
1 (cont.) What are the drivers? monitoring/information system

Increasing incomes

Aging population

Basic needs

Status goods

Desire to own

Individualism

Old habits

Fitting to norms

Goal of GDP growth

Public procurement

Infrastructure

Private financing

Subsidies (EU + MS)

Globalisation

Marketing

Advertising

Packaging

Pricing

Need for profit

Energy markets

Inertia of establ. industry

Country specialisation


1 (cont.) Tools for change monitoring/information system

Subsidy reform

Alternative welfare indicators

Green procurement

Green urban planning

Socially resp. invest.

Tax reform

Environmental education

Information on impacts

Economic instruments

Changing norms

Promoting rent not ownership

Challenging habits

DRIVERS

Increasing incomes

Aging population

Basic needs

Status goods

Desire to own

Individualism

Old habits

Fitting to norms

Goal of GDP growth

Public procurement

Infrastructure

Private financing

Subsidies (EU + MS)

LCA

IPP

Emission trading schemes

Pollution control

Energy taxes

Producer responsibility

Product innovation

EMAS/ISO14001

Worst polluters list

Globalisation

Marketing

Advertising

Packaging

Pricing

Need for profit

Energy markets

Inertia of establ. industry

Country specialisation

Fuel taxes (also airfuel)

Ecolabels

Import controls

Green advertising

Differential V.A.T.


1 cont scp policy time line
1 (cont.) SCP policy time-line monitoring/information system



2 cont storyline
2. (cont.) Storyline SCP

  • Consumption growth in Europe outweighs gains in efficiency. As a result many environmental impacts continue to increase (also outside Europe)

  • Consumption categories causing highest environmental impacts (through the production – consumption chain) are food consumption, housing activities (including heating and construction), and personal travel

  • Achieving SCP is a common joint challenge of public authorities, business and consumers.


2 cont european consumption patterns are changing
2 (cont.) European consumption patterns are changing SCP

Changing household consumption patterns in EU-10 and EU-15, 1994 to 2004

(sectors are presented in the order of most rapidly growing in EU-10 - most rapidly at top)

Source: Draft Belgrade Chapter

Data Source: Eurostat


2 cont why are consumption patterns changing
2 (cont.) Why are consumption patterns changing? SCP

  • Economic and technological factors: globalisation and market liberalisation, the internet, mobile phones

  • Demographic factors: average household size fallen from 2.8 in 1980 to 2.4 today, number of households increase, ageing of populations

  • Socio-cultural factors: individualisation, social groups, marketing, fashion


2 cont what are the impacts one indicator ecological footprint
2 (cont.) What are the impacts? One indicator: Ecological footprint

  • One indicator of many

  • The average footprint of EU25 was 4.7 global hectares in 2002 (EEA data) and on the increase

  • It varied from 3.3 in Poland to 7.7 in Finland

  • By 2002, Europe used two Europes (in biocapacity)

  • The global average footprint was 2.2


2 cont are we decoupling resource use from economic growth
2 (cont.) Are we decoupling resource use from economic growth?

Decoupling resource use from GDP in EU15

GDP

Energy cons.

DMC

GHG

EMC


2 cont housing
2 (cont.) Housing growth?

  • Larger homes with fewer people in each

  • New houses more energy efficient

  • Increase in number and use of electronic appliances outweighs efficiency gains

Environmental pressures

  • Large pressures from especially heating (70%)

  • Households contribute same share of emissions of greenhouse gases

  • Water use is decreasing in all regions of Europe

  • EEA projects higher waste amounts from households


2 cont energy efficiency and ownership of appliances
2 (cont.) Energy efficiency and growth? ownership of appliances

Trends in specific energy efficiency and ownership of 3 household appliances, and overall electricity consumption for lighting and appliances in EU-15

Source: Draft Belgrade chapter, Enerdata, 2005a


2 cont food and drinks consumption
2 (cont.) Food and drinks consumption growth?

Consumption of major food categories (kg/capita)



2 cont bending the trends
2 (cont.) Bending the trends growth?

  • Governments, business and consumers alike have interdependent and complementary roles

  • Technological improvements are necessary but not sufficient

  • Economic instruments can get the prices right

  • Labelling can enable consumers to make informed decisions about what to buy

  • Need to better understand consumer behaviour: Some actions may affect some consumer groups – but not others



2 cont environmental tax reform in the eu 1995 2003
(2 cont.) Environmental tax reform in the EU 1995 - 2003 growth?

Energy taxes

Labour taxes

Energy consumption/GDP

Source: Eurostat


2 cont improving energy and resource productivity
2 (cont.) Improving energy and resource productivity growth?

  • Labour costs constitute about 20% of total costs in manufacturing in EU-25. Material and energy costs can be up to 50%

Labour productivity

Materials productivity

Energy productivity


3. NAMEA bases on environmental growth?

Input-Output Analyses (eIOA)

National economy

Rest of the world

production

production

final

use

exports

final

use

imports

resource

extraction

resource

extraction

emissions

emissions


3 cont data
3 (cont.) Data growth?

  • monetary Input-Output Tables

    • Eurostat

  • NAMEA-type tables for selected environmental pressures

    • national authorities

      • air emissions => 3 impact categories

        • GWP - Global Warming Potential

        • ACID – Acidification

        • TOFP – Tropospheric Ozone Forming Potential

      • Direct Material Input (DMI)

        • domestic extraction (used)

        • imports of goods

  • Country coverage = 8

    • Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Sweden (1995 + 2000)

    • Spain, United Kingdom (1995)


  • 3 cont priority product chains related to domestic final use
    3 (cont.) Priority product chains growth? related to domestic final use





    3. (cont.) Consumption-patterns fairly similar across Europe: some countries perform more eco-efficient in providing basic needs

    e.g. GWP




    5 effectiveness evaluation
    5. Effectiveness Evaluation pressures vary significantly

    • A model

    • Reports due out in 2007 – see table

    • EEA activities

    • International links


    Eea activities in effectiveness evaluation
    EEA activities in effectiveness evaluation pressures vary significantly

    Surveys on the effectiveness of EEA products – ongoing

    Policy effectiveness evaluations:

    • Urban waste water treatment

    • Effectiveness of packaging waste management systems in selected countries: an EEA pilot study

    • Paper and cardboard meta study on LCA & CBA

    • New study - Landfill/incineration project – to what extent those directives contributed to increased prevention and recycling

    • November workshop to develop lessons learnt and guidelines for use in future studies


    International links
    International links pressures vary significantly

    • Eurosai (Auditor Generals) meeting 27-28 Nov 2007 on effects of environmental policies. (http://eurosai.nik.gov.pl/en/site)

    • UNEP’s best practice network (Paris office) meeting in Spring 2007 (postponed from November 2006 in Ottawa)


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