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NASA’s Earth Science Technology Office Laser Technology Development Program and how it supports a Global Tropospheric Winds Measurement. Frank Peri January 2002. Integrated ESE Lidar Strategy. Noncoherent DIAL CO 2. Pulsed Laser Development. Coherent Ocean/River Surface Currents.

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Frank Peri January 2002

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Frank peri january 2002

NASA’s Earth Science Technology OfficeLaser Technology Development Programand how it supports aGlobal Tropospheric Winds Measurement

Frank Peri

January 2002


Integrated ese lidar strategy

Integrated ESE Lidar Strategy

Noncoherent

DIAL CO2

Pulsed

Laser Development

Coherent Ocean/River

Surface Currents

Atmosphere:

Lower Upper

2 MICRON

Coherent

Winds

High Accuracy

High Resolution

Lower Trop. & Clouds

Diode Pumping

Architecture

Single Frequency

Electrical Efficiency

Heat Removal

Ruggedness

Lifetime

Graceful Degradation

C

O

M

M

O

N

Hybrid

Lidar

Winds

Noncoherent

Winds

Global Coverage

Medium Resolution

Medium Accuracy

Mid/Upper Atmosphere

X3

1 MICRON

0.355 micron

0.30-0.32 micron

Noncoherent

DIAL O3

OPO

Pump

Higher Power Altimetry Laser


Origins

Origins

  • In January 2001, a memo from the AA’s of Code Y and R requested that GSFC and LaRC jointly respond to three separate actions. These are quoted and listed in their order of appearance in the letter:

    • “and for GSFC and LaRC together to define the plans for working together on areas of mutual interest in laser development in a complementary way.”

    • “GSFC and LaRC must define how Centers will cooperate on future lidar competitive opportunities, in order to be able to fully participate in an integrated Agency research and development strategy for lidar technologies.”

    • Define “a GSFC/LaRC lidar working agreement as well as a description of your envisioned role in the Agency research and development strategy for lidar technologies/ Laser Development Steering Group.”

  • In addition, in November 2000, the findings of the Independent Laser Review panel were published which included, amongst others, the creation of a “Space Laser Super Center” managed as a single organization at the NASA HQ level.

  • LaRC and GSFC have formed a joint working team, the NASA Integrated Lidar Systems Strategy Team (NILSST), in response to these findings and requests.

  • ESTO adopted findings from these teams to create Laser Technology Program.


Fy02 joint laser technology program task synergies

FY02 Joint Laser Technology Program Task Synergies

Laser Risk Reduction

Program (LRRP), Code-Y

$ 2M

Enabling Concepts and

Technology Program (ECTP), Code-R

$ 2.1M

NRA Awards

Code-R $ 0.9M

Code-Y $ 0.6M

2-Micron Laser Transmitter

  • 2-micron Laser Transmitter

  • Laser Diodes (795-792nm)

  • Wavelength Conversion

2-Micron Laser Transmitter

Code-Y ATIP

  • Breadboard CO2 DIAL

  • Breadboard WIND Transmitter

  • 2-um Detector Development

  • Receiver Subsystem

  • Multi-Use Lidar Transmitter 3-9 um

  • Laser Diode for DIAL

  • High Power Laser

  • Multi-Use Lidar Transmitter, 3-9 um

Code-R CETDP

Quantum Mechanical Modeling and Advanced Materials

Water Vapor DIAL

LaRC

Wavelength Conversion

Code-Y ATIP

GSFC

LRRP, Code-Y

$ 2M

ECTP, Code-R

$ 1M

NRA Awards

Code-R $ 0.3M

  • 1-micron Laser Transmitter

  • Laser Diodes (808nm)

  • Injection Seeding for Wavelength Control

1-Micron Laser Testbed

Semiconductor Laser Source

  • Laser Architecture/System/Components

  • Opto-mechanical design

  • Contamination

  • Damage Tolerance

  • Heat Removal

  • Environmental testing

Code-R CETDP


Summary of tasks

Summary of Tasks

Laser Transmitter Task ($1.1M)

Develop high-energy, high-efficiency, conductively-cooled, 2-micron pulsed laser. Develop high-efficiency, solid-state seeder for single frequency operation of high power lasers

Laser Diode Array Task ($1.4M)

Address issues associated with diode laser array pumps for solid state lidar transmitters. Collaborate with industry and perform specialized testing to ensure technical and commercial availability of laser diodes for pumping of efficient, solid-state lasers in future NASA missions

Wavelength Conversion Task ($1.5M)

Develop wavelength conversion technologies to convert energy from laser pumps to efficient, high-energy, tunable, pulsed and CW energy in UV and IR. Develop injection seeding for wavelength/linewidth control


Laser transmitter task

Laser Transmitter Task

Objective

Develop a high-energy, high-efficiency, conductively-cooled, 2-micron pulsed laser. Develop a diode laser-based seeder for single frequency operation of high power lasers

Rationale/Applicability

2-micron applicable to Trop Winds and CO2. Seeder applicable to nearly all laser applications.

Description of Task

Develop a laser with conductively-cooled laser diodes; develop a thermal and optical simulation of the laser head; design and fabricate a fully conductively-cooled laser head; and design a compact, hardened laser. Develop a diode laser based seeder, externally tuned with an electro-optic KTP crystal

Deliverables

Working laser with CC laser diodes; thermal/optical laser head simulation; bonding procedure knowledge; fully CC laser head. Working seed source with better than 50% efficiency.


Laser diode array task

Laser Diode Array Task

Objectives

Address issues associated with diode laser array pumps for solid state lidar transmitters. Collaborate with industry and perform specialized testing to ensure technical and commercial availability of laser diodes for pumping of efficient, solid-state lasers in future NASA missions

Rationale/Applicability

LDA’s used in all solid-state lasers.

Description of Task

  • Develop laser diode requirements

  • Conduct technical interchanges with laser diode vendors and with the Air Force

  • Procure initial selection of LDs

  • Perform initial LD tests and analyses

    Roles and Responsibilities

    LaRC: Diode Lasers operating at 790-795 nm for pumping 2-micron lasers

    GSFC: Diode Lasers operating at 808 nm for pumping 1-micron lasers

    Approach

  • Define operational, physical, and environmental requirements

  • Establish working relationships with Industry and DOD

  • Collaborate and exchange data between GSFC and LaRC

  • Provide input to diode laser manufacturers


Wavelength conversion task

Wavelength Conversion Task

Objective

Develop wavelength conversion technologies to convert Nd:YAG laser into an efficient, high-energy, tunable, pulsed UV laser in the 280 – 320nm range,

Rationale/Applicability

280-320 nm used for ozone, techniques also relevant for direct detection winds (~355) and for water vapor (~944)

Description of Task

  • Develop a high-power OPO/OPA/SFG at 320 nm

  • Develop a stable, injection-seeded OPO cavity for use in a high-power laser

  • Develop a tunable, single-mode CW seed source capable of tuning from 600 nm to 950 nm, frequency doubling NIR fiber laser

  • Develop a high average power (>20W UV) OPO without using high-energy pulses, with small-diameter beam (~2 mm), and high conversion efficiency (>12%) from the IR to the UV

    Deliverables

  • CW seed source requirements

  • 150 mJ OPO/OPA/SFG system

  • Lifetime and stability of non-linear materials

  • Space qualification studies for fiber lasers

  • Flashlamp-pumped Nd:YAG laser with high beam quality (M2<2)

  • Nonlinear optics module to convert 1064 nm to 310 nm with 12% conversion efficiency


Trop winds measurement

Trop Winds Measurement

Current Facts

  • Laser transmitter technologies for application to space-based instruments are not mature enough to begin a formulation activity

  • User community believes that NASA must invest in lidar technologies, including laser transmitters and receiver technologies, including telescopes, scanners, detectors and filters. Databuy no longer only solution.

  • Current investments by ESTO are insufficient to ensure successful operational trop winds mission formulation

    Strategy

  • Use hybrid measurement approach as strawman plan for technology activities

  • Objectives of this technology development activity are to show progress towards enabling a space-based tropospheric winds measurement to OMB in support of FY 04-10 funds for formal formulation activity


Frank peri january 2002

GSFC

LaRC

Hybrid Wind Lidar Technology Plan

  • Coherent - better in cloudy situations

    • Uses returns from aerosols (and cloud particles)

    • High accuracy and spatial resolution when signal is above design threshold (sensitivity challenged)

    • Complexity & cost scale to sensitivity (coverage)

  • Direct - better in cloud-free upper troposphere

    • Uses returns from molecules (constant target)

    • Acceptable accuracy and coverage in mid and upper trop but performance reduced by clouds and aerosols.

    • Size and costs scale to desired accuracy/resolution

Implementation

Options

$3M Code R

Laser

Program

NASA/IPO build

$4M ESTO

Technology available

for science

NMP measurement validation in space

Data buy

Ground

Validation

Infusion to commercial entity

Direct

0.355mm

A/C Demo

20

15

10

5

0

Coherent

2 mm

20

10

0

Mature technologies relevant to space-based measurement capability, airborne measurement demonstration, verify algorithms, account for platform motion effects, mature operations approach

Vertical

Coverage

Altitude (km)

Conical Scan Depicted

Wind Error

Resolution

Year12345678910


Other applicable technology programs

Other Applicable Technology Programs

  • NOAA earmarks to NESDIS (Periera) and OAR (Hardesty)

  • IPO effort lead by Chief Scientist (Mango)

  • DoD work ongoing

NASA is ready to start discussions with partner organizations on a technology plan.


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